Ship Breaking, Old Cruise Ships

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By ,   November 26, 2015 ,   Ships and Lines

Ship breaking (also called ship demolition) is the process of dismantling ships for scrap metal and recycling or disposal. Today the ship breaking process takes place in a facility called ship breaking yard, while in the past scrapping ships took place in major port cities worldwide, and mostly in those of highly industrialized countries (UK, USA, Germany, Italy).

Ship dismantling includes numerous manual procedures and entirely excludes automation solutions, resulting in substantially higher labor costs. This is the primary reason today the largest ship braking yards to be located and operated in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and China - countries with extremely low labor cost and almost no environmental laws. Sources used in this survey include Wikipedia, cbc.ca, nbc.com, greenpeace.nl, osha.gov. The article is integrated with cruise ship building cost, ship capacity, ship dimensions.

Next links jump down directly to companies list and CruiseMapper's list of old cruise ships - 40+years old vessels (built before 1990) and still in operation.

Shipbreaking

Ship breaking is only one of several main ship disposal alternatives, also including hulking, floating or dry-dock storage, donation or sale for reuse, deep-water sinking and making artificial reefs (for detailed info check Ship Recycling). Having an average lifespan of a 20-40 years (depending on ship type), most ships become obsolete when the repair and refitting becomes uneconomical for the owner. Generally, ships ready for scrapping are put up for sale by their owners and usually the highest bidder wins the contract. Most of these already doomed vessels can make it to the scrapping yard under their own power, thus avoiding the not cheap charge for towing.

Ship Breaking - CruiseMapper

There are four major economic benefits of breaking ships for scrap and recycling that have made the breaking of ships a powerful industry:

  1. Steel production - the ships scrapping is the country's main source of steel, it reduces the need to import steel materials, thus saving huge amount of money.
  2. A "green industry" - the ship breaking scrap signifies reusing and recycling of almost everything on the vessel and the vessel itself, providing raw materials to the steel industry, asbestos for re-manufacturing factories, even furniture, electrical and electronic equipment, lubricants, oil, etc.
  3. The ship recycling industry generates large Government tax revenues mainly through import duties and the yards tax.
  4. it provides employment for some of the poorest people of the world, who would otherwise have no employment at all.

But all these economic benefits should be considered together with the social and environmental costs. People live and work in the most primitive conditions, high levels of pollution (most ships are used to carry such hazardous materials, like radioactive and toxic wastes, poisonous chemicals and oil), a severe contamination of the sea bed and the entire marine food chain.

Shipbreaking is one of the most hazardous jobs and among the world's most dangerous professions according to the International Labour Organization. In Bangladesh, India and Pakistan there's an average of 1 serious accident per day and 1 death per week on the ship breaking yards, the main causes being falls, fire and explosions, suffocation, falling objects, and many workers contract cancers caused by asbestos and numerous other toxic substances. Still are not respected by the industry all orders to the yards to produce environmental certificates, pre-cleaning reports and to ban the import of ships for scrap that had not been decontaminated in the export country.

Ship breaking industry

Since the 80's, the ship breaking industry almost entirely changed its main operational regions from strong economy highly industrialized countries, like Britain, USA and Germany, to some of the most impoverished regions in Asia.

The relocation process started in the late 50's, and while in the not so distant past ships for scrap were processed in major port cities of countries worldwide, today main factors in making business decisions in the ships breaking industry are the cheap labor, the lax of regulations and little environmental constraints in all developing countries in the Far East.

World shipbreaking industry statistics

The largest shipbreaking yards in the world are located in several regions in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and China, and in the last decade Turkey is gradually entering the industry. The statistics below show the percentages of scrapped vessels by country. Clearly, the Asian yards dominate the industry of ship breaking and scrapping, India, China and Bangladesh being world's undisputed leaders in this business:

  • India - 48%
  • China - 21%
  • Bangladesh - 19%
  • Pakistan - 10%
  • Others - 2%.
  • Some statistics.
  • The industry of breaking ships employs over 100,000 workers worldwide, 41% of them are between 18-23 years old, 11% are children (under the age of 18), 46% of all workers are illiterate. Of all the world's 45,000+ ocean ships about 1,6% are scrapped every year. About 95% of the mass of a ship can be reused.
  • The ship recycling industry supplies more than 40% of the world's raw material needs - appr 1,6 million people are engaged in this business, generating 600+ million tons of recyclables every year with an annual revenue of US$200+ billion.

Shipbreaking is a term symbolizing huge profits by cheap buying of ships for scrap metal, selling scrap and used ship machinery, equipment and electronics, hard manual labor, some of the worst work conditions in the world with some of the highest rates of work accidents and mortality, numerous health and environmental risks.

Container ship scrapping market changes

An official 2013 Lloyd's List report says containership scrapping rates exceeded all records in 2013 compared to previous years and trends. Still, cellular ship capacity removed due to ship demolition was surpassed 1 to 3 compared to newbuild ship deliveries.

Ship Breaking - CruiseMapper

The 2013's container ship recycling (these type of marine vessels are also known as "boxships") reached a total capacity of 450000 TEUs (container capacity unit) well exceeding the 2009's record of 381000 TEUs. The rapid ship scrapping acceleration was attributed to the tendency of removing Panamax class cargo ships under charter. The smaller vessels (capacity around 4000 TEUs) were operated with charter rates at highly depressed levels - below US$10,000 per day. In comparison, the 2005's shipcharter rates peak was almost US$45000 per day.

Also the average age of container cargo vessels for scrapping fell from the level of 25-30 years down to under 20 years. This is the operational age of ships sold for scrap. CruiseMapper's list of the largest container ships in the world also has the list of largest shipping companies, their fleets' biggest vessels, all ship types infographic, statistical data and latest news.

Shipbreaking products and pollution

Here are some of the commonly acknowledged answers to the question why all major shipbreakers are operational in Third World countries:

Ship Breaking - CruiseMapper

  • Older ships contain many hazardous substances banned as dangerous in developed countries. Typical examples - asbestos (used on old ships as a heat insulator), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and lethal POPs (persistent organic pollutants). Currently, the cost of removing asbestos and the expensive insurance and health risks are the main reasons ship breaking to be economically not viable in most developed countries.
  • In developed countries removing the metal for scrap costs more than the value of the scrap metal itself. This is not the case in the developing world - no risk of personal injury lawsuits and health claims by workers, inadequate or no protective equipment at all. And many pollutants can cause serious health problems - from cancers and pulmonary problems (like asthma and asbestosis) to hormonal system disruption. Heavy metals are found in paints, coatings, electrical equipment.
  • Serious environmental issues like the coastal soil and sea water contamination. Wastes of the scrapped ships (especially oil and oil substances) are drained and dumped directly into the sea, and the lax or no environmental laws enables large quantities of toxic materials to escape into the environment. Ship scrapping activities also generate oil pollution, and include discharge of ammonia, metal rust, which damages the bird population and numerous marine organisms (especially plankton and fishes).

Shipbreaking - a lucrative and powerful business

  • Ship breaking on the beach (prohibited in most countries) is operated in coast areas inhabited by thousands of poor families in countries with millions of uneducated people looking for any job, thus providing the cheapest man power for the ship breaking industry. Under such economic conditions, no major investments are required to start and operate a ship breaking firm. Ships for scrap are not properly cleaned before beaching.
  • The ships recycling industry supplies great quantities of iron materials in the country (including high quality steel), which also means that yards owners have substantial control over the amount of steel and its local price.
  • Almost everything on ships is recycled, reused, resold. The ships scrapping means providing raw materials to steel mills, steel plate remanufacturing, second hand furniture, electrical and electronic equipment, oil and lubricants.
  • The ship breaking industry in Bangladesh, for example, generates huge amounts of Government revenues through taxes reaching almost US $130 million (import duty, yards and other taxes).
  • This is an industry that employs directly many thousands of the most poor uneducated people.

As opposed to ship beaching, dry-dock ship demolishing process is faster by 50%, safer for workers and environment friendly - no oil spillage into the sea.

Ship breaking regulations

The ship breaking industry regulations and controlling bodies include 3 UN organizations with responsibilities for the breaking of ships, who also provide guidelines for shipbreaking:

  • Basel Convention (1992) with its 2002 "Technical Guidelines for the Environmentally Sound Management of the Full and Partial Dismantling of Ships". Info and recommendations on procedures, processes and practices, on disposal and identification of potential contaminants, design and construction of ship breaking facilities.
  • International Maritime Organization (2003) with its "Guidelines on Ship Recycling" concerning administrators of shipbuilding and vessel equipment, supplying countries, flag and recycling states, ship-owners, repair and recycling yards. About new ship and equipment designs (to minimize waste generation and the use of hazardous materials), producing Green Passports for ships, ship recycling preparations. According to this document, the responsibility for worker and environment protection in ship recycling yards must rest with the breaking yard itself, the country's regulatory authorities, ship owners and stakeholders.
  • International Labour Organization (2003) with its "Safety and Health in Shipbreaking" (endorsed 2004) - a set of criteria for ships disposal and recycling concerning ship breaking authorities and shipbreakers (both employers and workers). The Guidelines contribute to workers protection from workplace dangers, elimination of work-related accidents (injuries, diseases, deaths) and improving the management of occupational safety-health issues in shipbreaking yards. The document is especially intended as guidance to countries where such regulations are limited or nonexistent. It also includes recommendations on the management of hazardous substances, workers protection and training programs. As to the beach shipbreaking, it suggests the following steps in the ships dismantling process - assessing hazardous materials on board, decontamination (including gas-freeing), safe demolition planning, recycling, safe waste management.

On March 15, 2018, based on the European Union's regulations for Waste Shipments, the District Court of Rotterdam Holland convicted for trafficking toxic ships and sentenced the Seatrade shipping company (headquartered in Antwerp Belgium). The company was heavily fined for illegally exporting marine vessels for breaking on the beaches of India and Bangladesh. In addition, two Seatrade CEOs were banned for 1 year from exercising the professions director, commissioner, advisor or employee of a shipping company.

This was a precedent when an European shipping company is held criminally liable for selling scrap vessels to substandard breaking yards in Asia. According to the Prosecutor, the Asian breakyards' "current ship dismantling methods endanger the lives and health of workers and pollute the environment". His request Seatrade's CEOs to face prison time was only waived in light of this being a precedent for such criminal charges.

The verdict set an Europe-wide precedent for holding shipowners accountable for knowingly selling for cash (via shady buyers) vessels for dirty and dangerous scrapping in order to maximize profits.

List of ship breaking companies in USA, Canada, Europe, Turkey, China, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh

"Ship Breakers" is a term related to a company that serves the market of ship dismantling (ships demolition). The business of a ship breaking company generally includes scrapping and recycling ships, selling used ships equipment, and sometimes - the purchase and sale of second hand ships and other marine vessels. The biggest ship breaking companies operate their businesses in impoverished Third World countries - few environmental or safety restrictions, the cheapest labor cost, huge profit margins.

Ship Breaking - CruiseMapper

The "Shipbreakers" documentary (2004) is a great Canadian film about the Alang ship breaking yard in India - notorious with its deplorable working conditions, and in the same time the world's largest ships scrapping yard ever operated.

Ship Breaking Company Names (Website-Address-Phone)

Country (Year Estblished)EmployeesAnnual Revenue (millions USD)Misc info / recycling products
Al-Hamza Ship Breaking (alhamzagroup.com)PAKISTAN (1974)500-100050-100ship breaking scrap seller, a high volume supplier of raw Onyx.
Andrew Agency ("A-702 Saima Trade Tower, Chundrigar Road, Karachi sindh 74100", 92-21-32211413)PAKISTAN (1978)100-5005-10Buying non ferreous metal and ship breaking scrap, battery scrap.
Euroasia Group of companies (europe.bloombiz.com, "Hakim building, Shahra-e-Faisal Karachi sindh 75400", 92-21-4330062)PAKISTAN (2002)500,1Import-export of all kind of ship scraps, minerals and metals.
Geofman Trading (geofman.com)PAKISTAN---
Habib Maritime Ltd ("2nd floor. UBL building. Chundrigar Road, Karachi sindh 74200", 92-21-2411887)PAKISTAN (1958)10-501-2trading house.
Metco ShipbreakersPAKISTAN---
Shamsain Marketing Services ("Plot No AC2, M1, Clifton Pride, Khayaban-e-Saadi, Clifton Block, Karachi sindh 74600", 92-21-3586591)PAKISTAN (2000)500-100050-100large projects.
Star Cotton Corp (dadasons.com)PAKISTAN---
Transtrade Pvt Ltd (transtradegroup.net)PAKISTAN---
Oge Gemi Sokum Ithalat Ihracat (ogegemi.com)TURKEY---
Dachang International Shipping Co (mtu-mts.com)CHINA (2006)10-500,5-1Services - ship building and conversion, ship repairs, shipbreaking, new and used marine equipment, purchase and sale ships in China.
Haosen Business Service Co ("No1Heping road, Hengshui Hebei 050000", 86-0318-8066321)CHINA (2006)10-500,5-1Buying ships for scrap (oil tankers, cargo passenger and container ships of over 10,000 tons).
Shanghai Xinhua Iron and Steel (xhsteel.com)CHINA---
Xinhui Shuangshui Shipbreaking (sbsteel.com)CHINA---
Ta-Ho Maritime Corp (thmc.com.tw)Taiwan---
Pharung Shipyard (pharungyard.com.vn)Vietnam---
Sunlift Subic International Corp ("157 Crowne Bay Tower, Roxas Boulevard Paranaque Metro, Manila 1702", 63-2-5570512)Philippines (2004)5-100,1-0,5Vessels scrap (HMS 1-2-3), bulk and container (fob and c&f basis).
7Riches International Trading Corp ("B2, L5, St Elizabeth St., Mary Homes, Molino 4, Bacoor, Cavite Manila 4300", 63-2-6683874)Philippines (1998)5-100,1-0,5A trader of marine products, minerals and scrap, oil, shipping services.
August International FZC ("PO box 30457 Sharjah", 971-6-5621366)UAE (1991)10-500,1-0,5A stainless steel scrap trader (types SS 304, 316, 409, 410), bulk HMS scrap, buying ships for scrap. Capacity up to 500 tons per month, has yards in Alang, Bombay, Calcutta.
Parus International FZC (parus-co.com)UAE (2010)5-105-10Petroleum products, steel scrap, shipbreaking.
Magnate Steel (India, drydock ship breaking)Madagascar100-recycling ops in Mauritius, India, USA, Canada.
Able UK Ltd (ableuk.com)England UK---
Fornaes ApS (fornaes.dk)Denmark---
Van Heyghen Recycling (vanheyghenrecycling.com)Belgium---
All Star Metals LLC ( allstarmetals.com)Brownsville, Texas USA- -
Bay Bridge Enterprises (adani.com)Chesapeake, Virginia USA--since 2005 - a subsidiary of Adani Group. capacity 3 ships at a time
Donjon Marine Co (donjon.com)Hillside, New Jersey USA---
ESCO Marine (escomarine.us)Brownsville, Texas USA--ship recycling ships breaking
International Shipbreaking Ltd LLCBrownsville, Texas USA---
Marine Metal Inc (16901 RL Ostos Road Brownsville TX, 956-831-4284)Brownsville, Texas USA---
United Steel Supply Inc (15 ml south of NOLA)New Orleans, Louisiana USA (2006)100-50010-50high quality HMS 1 and HMS 2 scrap steel, scrap metal, cast iron. Capacity - up to 100,000 metric tons per month.
International Marine Salvage Inc (internationalmarinesalvage.com)Port Colborne (Ontario, Canada)--operates 5 facilities.

Shipbreaking business - YouTube video

The Pakistan's Gadani shipbreaking yard is located some 65 km south-west of Karachi - the country's most populous city, main seaport and financial center. Gadani is the world's 3rd largest shipbreaking yard after Alang (India) and Chittagong (Bangladesh).

  • men die, some break legs, some tear muscle, but work there never stops
  • on their ship-dismantling jobs here workers make GBP 2,25 ($3,5) a day
  • most of the workers at Gadani are Pashtuns (a very poor local tribe).

The following lengthy video is a NAT GEO release about the Alang shipbreaking yard in India - the world's "biggest graveyard for ships". Over half of the marine vessels in the world are scrapped in India (at the Mumbai and Alang yards). The video explains a lot about the ship scrapping business in general. It is made professionally, and is well worth watching.

Ship cemeteries are where the beauty of all once beloved ships shines for the very last time. From most rusty freighters to 5-star cruise liners and famous passenger ships - literally dumped on the beach of some of the poorest countries in the world to be stripped of all honors and destroyed by the wretched of the earth. Thousands of the world's biggest ships have been driven onto the remote beaches of Alang, Chittagong, Gadani, Aliaga - to be seen no more.

Old Cruise Ships List

See here the original and new names of 40+years old cruise vessels (launched before 1990) that are still operational. The list doesn't include riverboats, Russian ships and cruiseferries.

Old ships names have become a matter of investigation these days. With the exception of the newest passenger ships, almost all the rest are with different from their launch names, usually changed the instant the vessel receives new owner, or even new operator. Holland America Line ships are well-known for bearing "recycled" names - unique practice of using one name for different vessels over the years, though a charming sentimental way of connecting past and future for this over 130-year old passenger shipping company.

  • HSC (high speed craft)
  • MF (motor ferry)
  • MS / MV (motor ship / vessel)
  • MSY (motor sailing yacht)
  • MY (motor yacht)
  • NS (nuclear ship)
  • RMS (royal mail ship)
  • RV (research vessel)
  • SB (sailing barge)
  • SS (steam ship)
  • SV (sailing vessel)
  • SY (sailing yacht)
Crurrent Ship nameYear builtFormer namesOwner company
SS Misr1918 Nile River Cruises
Sea Cloud1931Hussar II, AngelitaSea Cloud Cruises
PS Waverley1947 Small Cruise Lines
Astoria1948MS Stockholm, Volkerfreundschaft, Volker, Fridtjof Nansen, Italia I, Italia Prima, Valtur Prima, Caribe, Athena, MS AzoresCMV
MV Liseron1952 The Boat Company
Lisboa1955Port Melbourne, Therisos Express, Danae, Starlight Express, Baltica, Princess DanaeSmall Cruise Lines
MS Nordstjernen1956Det Bergenske Dampskibsselskap, Troms Fylkes Dampskibsselskap, Hurtigruten, Vestland RederiHurtigruten
MV Hans Hansson1960RS Skomvaer IIQuixote Expeditions
Funchal1961 Small Cruise Lines
Galapagos Legend1963Baltic Star, Stena Finlandia, Helgoland, Galapagos DiscoverySmall Cruise Lines
MY Callisto1963 Variety Cruises
Andaman Explorer1963Atlantic Guard, MS MarinaPandaw
MS Lofoten1964 Hurtigruten
Hebridean Princess1964ColumbiaHebridean Island Cruises
Belmond Road to Mandalay1964 Belmond
Marco Polo1965MS Aleksandr PushkinCMV
Porto1965Istra, Astra, Astra I, Nautilus 2000, ArionSmall Cruise Lines
National Geographic Endeavour1966Marburg, Lindmar, North Star, Caledonian Star, MS EndeavourLindblad Expeditions
Ocean Majesty1966Juan March, Sol Christina, Kypros Star, Olympic, HomericMajestic International Cruises
Amusement World1967Patricia, Stena Oceanica, Stena Saga, Crown Princess Victoria, Pacific Star, Sun Fiesta, Lion QueenNew Century Tours
Louis Aura1968Starward, Bolero, Orient QueenCelestyal Cruises
Leisure World1969Skyward, Shangri-La World, Asean World, Fantasy WorldNew Century Tours
MV Ushuaia1970Researcher, Malcolm BaldrigeAntarpply Expeditions Antarctica
mv Discovery1971Island Venture, Island Princess, Hyundai Pungak, Platinum, Discovery, Amenscrapped
Ocean Star Pacific1971Nordic Prince, Carousel, Aquamarine, Arielle, Pacific, Pacific Victoryscrapped
Knyaz Vladimir1971MV Eagle, MV Azur, MV Royal Iris, MV Roy StarBlack Sea Cruises
Black Watch1972Royal Viking StarFred Olsen
Oriental Dragon1972Long Jie, Omar III, Pongnae, Hyundai Pongnae, Superstar Sagittarius, Sun VikingSmall Cruise Lines
MS Expedition1972Kattegat, nf Tiger, Tiger, ÅlandsfärjanG Adventures
Boudicca1973Royal Viking SkyFred Olsen
Albatros1973Royal Viking Sea, Royal Odyssey, Norwegian Star, MS CrownPhoenix Reisen
mv Aegean Odyssey1973 Voyages to Antiquity
Oasia1973Vistafjord, Caronia, Saga Rubyscrapped
Monserrat1973Maholy, Frigo PedernalesG Adventures Galapagos
RV Charaidew1973ABN CharaidewABN-Assam Bengal Navigation
Rex Fortune1974Golden Odyssey, Astra II, Omar II, Macau SuccessSmall Cruise Lines
Ocean Diamond1974Begonia, Femhil, Explorer Starship, Song of Flower, Le DiamantQuark Expeditions
Moby Niki ferry1974Europafarjan 3, Corsica Serena 2, European VoyagerMOBY LINES
Moby Vincent ferry1974Stena Normandica, St BrendanMOBY LINES
Ocean Adventurer1975Alla Tarasova, Clipper Adventurer, Sea AdventurerQuark Expeditions
MS Delphin1975Byelorussiya, Kazakhstan IIPampa Cruises
MV Glen Massan1975 The Majestic Line
Moby Kiss ferry1975Mette Mols, Banasa, GalaxyMOBY LINES
MV Plancius1976HNLMS TydemanOceanwide Expeditions
Wilderness Explorer1976Spirit of DiscoveryUn-Cruise Adventures
Moby Otta ferry1976Tor Scandinavia, World Wide Expo, Princess of ScandinaviaMOBY LINES
Moby Drea ferry1976Tor Britannia, Scandinavian Star, Prince of ScandinaviaMOBY LINES
Golden Iris1977Cunard Conquest, Cunard Princess, MS RhapsodyMano Cruises
Moby Corse ferry1978Dana Anglia, Duke of Scandinavia, Pont L'AbbeMOBY LINES
Admiralty Dream1979Spirit of AlaskaAlaskan Dream Cruises
MV Isabela II1979 Metropolitan Touring Galapagos
Celestyal Crystal1980Viking Saga, Sally, MS Albatross, MS Silja Opera, Louis CristalCelestyal Cruises
MS Berlin1980Princess Mahsuri, Orange Melody, Spirit of Adventure, FTI BerlinFTI Cruises
Baranof Dream1980Spirit of ColumbiaAlaskan Dream Cruises
Wawel ferry1980Scandinavia, Tzarevetz, Fiesta, Stena Fantasia, P&O Canterbury, Alkmini APOLFERRIES
Regina Baltica ferry1980Viking Song, Braemar, Anna KareninaBALEARIA
SNAV Aurelia ferry1980 SNAV Ferries
GNV Azzurra ferry1980Gotland, Wasa Star, Peter Wessel, SNAV ToscanaGRANDI NAVI VELOCI
Viking Rosella ferry1980 VIKING LINE
Prevelis ferry1980Preveli, Ferry Orange No 2ANEK LINES
Saga Pearl II1981MV Astoria, Quest for Adventure, Saga Pearl 2Saga Ocean Cruises
Saga Sapphire1981MS Europa, SuperStar Europe, SuperStar Aries, Holiday Dream, Bleu de FranceSaga Ocean Cruises
Ocean Dream1981Carnival Tropicale, Costa Tropicale, Pacific Star (P&O AU), New Flamenco (Pullmantur), Ocean Dream (Peace Boat)Peace Boat
Almariya ferry1981Isabella I, Nordlandia, Nord Gotlandia, Olau HollandiaTRASMEDITERRANEA
Stena Vision ferry1981Stena GermanicaSTENA LINE
Wasa Express ferry1981Betancuria, Thjelvar, Rostock, Color Traveller, Sally Star, Travemünde Link, TravemündeWASA LINE
Stena Europe ferry1981MS Kronprinsessan Victoria, MS Stena Saga, MS Lion EuropeSTENA LINE
Stena Saga ferry1981Silvia Regina, Stena BritannicaSTENA LINE
Moby Dada ferry1981Finlandia, Queen of Scandinavia, Princess MariaMOBY LINES
Celestyal Olympia1982Song of America, MS Sunbird, Thomson Destiny, Louis OlympiaCelestyal Cruises
National Geographic Explorer1982MS Midnatsol, MS Midnatsol 2, MS LyngenLindblad Expeditions
National Geographic Sea Bird1982Majestic Explorer, MS Sea BirdLindblad Expeditions
National Geographic Sea Lion1982Great Rivers Explorer, MS Sea LionLindblad Expeditions
Ocean Endeavour1982Konstantin Simonov, Francesca, The Iris, Kristina KatarinaQuark Expeditions
Ocean Gala1982MS Scandinavia (DFDS Seaways), MS Stardancer (Royal Admiral Cruises), Viking Serenade (Royal Caribbean ), MS Island Escape (Thomson Cruises)Small Cruise Lines
Safari Voyager1982Temtress Voyager, Sea VoyagerUn-Cruise Adventures
River Victoria1982MS Aleksandr Griboyedov, Knyazhna ViktoriaUniworld
Moby Zaza ferry1982Olau Britannia, MS Bayard, Christian IV, MS Julia, Wind PerfectionMOBY LINES
MS Vesteralen1983 Hurtigruten
Safari Endeavour1983Newport Clipper, Spirit of EndeavourUn-Cruise Adventures
SS Legacy1983Spirit of '98Un-Cruise Adventures
Thomson Spirit1983MS Nieuw Amsterdam, MS Patriot, MS SpiritMarella Cruises
Stena Spirit ferry1983Stena ScandinavicaSTENA LINE
Artania1984Royal Princess, MS ArtemisPhoenix Reisen
Chichagof Dream1984Nantucket Clipper, Spirit of Nantucket, Spirit of Glacier BayAlaskan Dream Cruises
SeaDream I1984Sea Goddess I, Seabourn Goddess ISeaDream
Wilderness Adventurer1984Caribbean PrinceUn-Cruise Adventures
Marella Celebration1984MS Noordam, Thomson CelebrationMarella Cruises
Spirit of Enderby1984Professor KhromovAurora Expeditions
MV Coral Expeditions II1985Coral Princess IICoral Expeditions
Lord of the Glens1985Victoria II, VictoriaLindblad Expeditions
Magellan1985MS Holiday (Carnival), Grand Holiday (IberoCruises)CMV
MV Polar Pioneer1985Akademik SchuleykinAurora Expeditions
SeaDream II1985Sea Goddess II, Seabourn Goddess IISeaDream
Viking Mariella ferry1985 VIKING LINE
Color Viking ferry1985Peder Paars, Stena InvictaCOLOR LINE
Alaskan Dream1986Executive ExplorerAlaskan Dream Cruises
Marella Dream1986MS Homeric, MS Westerdam, Costa Europa, Thomson DreamMarella Cruises
Wind Star1986 Windstar
Ocean Atlantic1986MS Konstantin Chernenko, MS Russ, SC AtlanticQuark Expeditions
Princess Anastasia ferry1986Olympia, Pride of Bilbao, SPL Princess AnastasiaMOBY LINES
Stena Nautica ferry1986Niels Klim, Lion King, Lion King IISTENA LINE
Wolin ferry1986Öresund, Sky WindUNITY LINE
Princess Seaways ferry1986Peter Pan, Spirit of Tasmania, Spir, Fjord Norway, Princess of NorwayDFDS SEAWAYS
Pullmantur Sovereign1987Sovereign of the Seas, MS SovereignPullmantur
Astor1987Fedor DostoevskiyCMV
Grand Celebration1987MS Celebration, Carnival Celebration, Costa CelebrationBahamas Paradise Cruise Line
Crystal Mozart1987Dertour Mozart, MS MozartCrystal River Cruises
Pride of York ferry1987NorseaP&O FERRIES
Pride of Bruges ferry1987NorsunP&O FERRIES
Oscar Wilde ferry1987Kronprins HaraldIRISH FERRIES
Blue Horizon ferry1987Superferry Hellas, VarunaBLUE STAR FERRIES
King Seaways ferry1987Nils Holgersson, Val de Loire, King of ScandinaviaDFDS SEAWAYS
Nissos Rodos ferry1987Hellenic Voyager, Ocean Trailer, KisoHELLENIC SEAWAYS
Balmoral1988Crown OdysseyFred Olsen
ms Prinsendam1988 Holland America
Americana1988Yorktown Clipper, Spirit of Yorktown, MS YorktownSmall Cruise Lines
MV Coral Expeditions I1988Coral Princess ICoral Expeditions
SuperStar Libra1988MS Seaward, Norwegian SeaStar Cruises
Star Pride1988Seabourn PrideWindstar
Wind Spirit1988 Windstar
PS Murray Princess1988 Sealink Travel Group - Captain Cook Cruises
Huckleberry Finn ferry1988Nils Dacke, Peter Pan, Peter Pan IVTT LINE
MV Skorpios II1988 Skorpios Cruises Chile
Nissos Samos ferry1988Ionian Queen, Ionian Glory, New AkashiaHELLENIC SEAWAYS
Columbus1989Sitmar Fair Majesty, Star Princess, Arcadia, Ocean Village 1, Pacific PearlCMV
Silver Discoverer1989Clipper Odyssey (Zegrahm Expeditions)Silversea Expeditions
Silver Explorer1989Delfin Clipper, Sally Clipper, Baltic Clipper, Delfin Star, Dream 21, World Discoverer, World Adventurer, MS Prince Albert II (Society Expeditions)Silversea Expeditions
MV Ortelius1989Marina SvetaevaOceanwide Expeditions
Star Breeze1989Seabourn SpiritWindstar
RMS St Helena1989 St Helena Line
Tom Sawyer ferry1989 TT LINE
Pearl Seaways ferry1989Athena, Star Aquarius, Langkapuri Star Aquarius, Aquarius, Pearl of ScandinaviaDFDS SEAWAYS
Viking Cinderella ferry1989MS CinderellaVIKING LINE
Tallink Isabelle ferry1989Viking IsabellaTALLINK-SILJA
GNV Atlas ferry1989Olau Britannia, Pride of Portsmouth, SNAV LazioGRANDI NAVI VELOCI
GNV Cristal ferry1989Olau Hollandia, Pride of Le Havre, SNAV SardegnaGRANDI NAVI VELOCI
Bretagne ferry1989 BRITTANY FERRIES
Orient Queen1989Vistamar, Med QueenAbou Merhi Cruises
Mediterranee ferry1989Danielle CasanovaCORSICA LINEA
Carnival Fantasy1990 Carnival Cruise Line
Pacific Jewel1990Crown Princess, A'Rosa Blu, AIDAblu, Ocean Village 2P&O Cruises
Empress Of The Seas1990Future Seas, Nordic Empress, Pullmantur EmpressRoyal Caribbean
Pullmantur Horizon1990Island Star, Pacific Dream, MV HorizonPullmantur
Silver Galapagos1990Galapagos Explorer II (Renaissance Cruises)Silversea Expeditions
Aegean Paradise1990Happy Dolphin, Hainan Empress, Delphin Voyager, Cruise One, Orient VenusNew Century Tours
Asuka 21990Crystal HarmonyNYK Cruises
MV Corinthian1990Renaissance Four, Clelia II, Orion IIGrand Circle Cruise Line
MS Bremen1990Frontier SpiritHapag-Lloyd Cruises
Vidanta Alegria1990Crown Monarch, Nautican, Walrus, Jules Verne, Alexander von Humboldt, MV VoyagerVidanta Cruises
Star Pisces1990MS Kalypso (Viking Line ferry)Star Cruises
Wind Surf1990Club Med 1Windstar
Estrella del Mar1990 G Adventures Galapagos
MY Pegasus1990 Variety Cruises
Sanctuary Nile Adventurer1990 Sanctuary Retreats Egypt
Silja Serenade ferry1990 TALLINK-SILJA
Diagoras ferry1990 AML

Next video shows transatlantic ocean liners operated by Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (CGT, aka French Line) - founded 1861, defunct 1975.