Ship breaking (also called ship demolition) is the process of dismantling ships for scrap metal and recycling or disposal. Today the ship breaking process takes place in a facility called ship breaking yard, while in the past scrapping ships took place in major port cities worldwide, and mostly in those of highly industrialized countries (UK, USA, Germany, Italy).
Ship dismantling includes numerous manual procedures and entirely excludes automation solutions, resulting in substantially higher labor costs. This is the primary reason today the largest ship braking yards to be located and operated in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and China - countries with extremely low labor cost and almost no environmental laws. Sources used in this survey include Wikipedia, cbc.ca, nbc.com, greenpeace.nl, osha.gov. The article is integrated with cruise ship building cost, ship capacity, ship dimensions.
Ship breaking is only one of several main ship disposal alternatives, also including hulking, floating or dry-dock storage, donation or sale for reuse, deep-water sinking and making artificial reefs (for detailed info check Ship Recycling). Having an average lifespan of a 20-40 years (depending on ship type), most ships become obsolete when the repair and refitting becomes uneconomical for the owner. Generally, ships ready for scrapping are put up for sale by their owners and usually the highest bidder wins the contract. Most of these already doomed vessels can make it to the scrapping yard under their own power, thus avoiding the not cheap charge for towing.
There are four major economic benefits of breaking ships for scrap and recycling that have made the breaking of ships a powerful industry:
- Steel production - the ships scrapping is the country's main source of steel, it reduces the need to import steel materials, thus saving huge amount of money.
- A "green industry" - the ship breaking scrap signifies reusing and recycling of almost everything on the vessel and the vessel itself, providing raw materials to the steel industry, asbestos for re-manufacturing factories, even furniture, electrical and electronic equipment, lubricants, oil, etc.
- The ship recycling industry generates large Government tax revenues mainly through import duties and the yards tax.
- it provides employment for some of the poorest people of the world, who would otherwise have no employment at all.
But all these economic benefits should be considered together with the social and environmental costs. People live and work in the most primitive conditions, high levels of pollution (most ships are used to carry such hazardous materials, like radioactive and toxic wastes, poisonous chemicals and oil), a severe contamination of the sea bed and the entire marine food chain.
Shipbreaking is one of the most hazardous jobs and among the world's most dangerous professions according to the International Labour Organization. In Bangladesh, India and Pakistan there's an average of 1 serious accident per day and 1 death per week on the ship breaking yards, the main causes being falls, fire and explosions, suffocation, falling objects, and many workers contract cancers caused by asbestos and numerous other toxic substances. Still are not respected by the industry all orders to the yards to produce environmental certificates, pre-cleaning reports and to ban the import of ships for scrap that had not been decontaminated in the export country.
Ship breaking industry
Since the 80's, the ship breaking industry almost entirely changed its main operational regions from strong economy highly industrialized countries, like Britain, USA and Germany, to some of the most impoverished regions in Asia.
The relocation process started in the late 50's, and while in the not so distant past ships for scrap were processed in major port cities of countries worldwide, today main factors in making business decisions in the ships breaking industry are the cheap labor, the lax of regulations and little environmental constraints in all developing countries in the Far East.
Global shipbreaking industry statistics
The largest shipbreaking yards in the world are located in several regions in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and China, and in the last decade Turkey is gradually entering the industry. The statistics below show the percentages of scrapped vessels by country. Clearly, the Asian yards dominate the industry of ship breaking and scrapping, India, China and Bangladesh being world's undisputed leaders in this business:
- India - 48%
- China - 21%
- Bangladesh - 19%
- Pakistan - 10%
- Others - 2%.
- Some statistics.
The industry of breaking ships employs over 100,000 workers worldwide, 41% of them are between 18-23 years old, 11% are children (under the age of 18), 46% of all workers are illiterate. Of all the world's 45,000+ ocean ships about 1,6% are scrapped every year. About 95% of the mass of a ship can be reused.
Ship recycling industry supplies more than 40% of the world's raw material needs - appr 1,6 million people are engaged in this business, generating 600+ million tons of recyclables every year with an annual revenue of US$200+ billion.
Shipbreaking is a term symbolizing huge profits by cheap buying of ships for scrap metal, selling scrap and used ship machinery, equipment and electronics, hard manual labor, some of the worst work conditions in the world with some of the highest rates of work accidents and mortality, numerous health and environmental risks.
Container ship scrapping market changes
An official 2013 Lloyd's List report says containership scrapping rates exceeded all records in 2013 compared to previous years and trends. Still, cellular ship capacity removed due to ship demolition was surpassed 1 to 3 compared to newbuild ship deliveries.
In 2013, container ship (boxship) recycling reached a total capacity of 450000 TEUs (container capacity unit) well exceeding 2009's record of 381000 TEUs. The rapid ship scrapping acceleration was attributed to the tendency of removing Panamax-class cargo ships under charter. The smaller vessels (capacity around 4000 TEUs) were operated with charter rates at highly depressed levels - below USD 10,000 per day. In comparison, 2005's shipcharter rates peak was almost USD 45000 per day.
Also the average age of boxships for scrapping fell from 25-30 years down to under 20 years. This is the operational age of ships sold for scrap.
Shipbreaking products and pollution
Here are some of the commonly acknowledged answers to the question why all major shipbreakers are operational in Third World countries:
Older ships contain many hazardous substances banned as dangerous in developed countries. Typical examples - asbestos (used on old ships as a heat insulator), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and lethal POPs (persistent organic pollutants). Currently, the cost of removing asbestos and the expensive insurance and health risks are the main reasons ship breaking to be economically not viable in most developed countries.
In developed countries removing the metal for scrap costs more than the value of the scrap metal itself. This is not the case in the developing world - no risk of personal injury lawsuits and health claims by workers, inadequate or no protective equipment at all. And many pollutants can cause serious health problems - from cancers and pulmonary problems (like asthma and asbestosis) to hormonal system disruption. Heavy metals are found in paints, coatings, electrical equipment.
Serious environmental issues like the coastal soil and sea water contamination. Wastes of the scrapped ships (especially oil and oil substances) are drained and dumped directly into the sea, and the lax or no environmental laws enables large quantities of toxic materials to escape into the environment. Ship scrapping activities also generate oil pollution, and include discharge of ammonia, metal rust, which damages the bird population and numerous marine organisms (especially plankton and fishes).
Shipbreaking - a lucrative and powerful business
Ship breaking on the beach (prohibited in most countries) is operated in coast areas inhabited by thousands of poor families in countries with millions of uneducated people looking for any job, thus providing the cheapest man power for the ship breaking industry. Under such economic conditions, no major investments are required to start and operate a ship breaking firm. Ships for scrap are not properly cleaned before beaching.
Ship recycling industry supplies great quantities of iron materials in the country (including high quality steel), which also means that yards owners have substantial control over the amount of steel and its local price.
Almost everything on ships is recycled, reused, resold. The ships scrapping means providing raw materials to steel mills, steel plate remanufacturing, second hand furniture, electrical and electronic equipment, oil and lubricants.
Shipbreaking industry in Bangladesh, for example, generates huge amounts of Government revenues through taxes reaching almost US $130 million (import duty, yards and other taxes). This is an industry that employs directly many thousands of the most poor uneducated people.
As opposed to ship beaching, dry-dock ship demolishing process is faster by 50%, safer for workers and environment friendly - no oil spillage into the sea.
Ship breaking regulations
The ship breaking industry regulations and controlling bodies include 3 UN organizations with responsibilities for the breaking of ships, who also provide guidelines for shipbreaking:
- Basel Convention (1992) with its 2002 "Technical Guidelines for the Environmentally Sound Management of the Full and Partial Dismantling of Ships". Info and recommendations on procedures, processes and practices, on disposal and identification of potential contaminants, design and construction of ship breaking facilities.
- International Maritime Organization (2003) with its "Guidelines on Ship Recycling" concerning administrators of shipbuilding and vessel equipment, supplying countries, flag and recycling states, ship-owners, repair and recycling yards. About new ship and equipment designs (to minimize waste generation and the use of hazardous materials), producing Green Passports for ships, ship recycling preparations. According to this document, the responsibility for worker and environment protection in ship recycling yards must rest with the breaking yard itself, the country's regulatory authorities, ship owners and stakeholders.
- International Labour Organization (2003) with its "Safety and Health in Shipbreaking" (endorsed 2004) - a set of criteria for ships disposal and recycling concerning ship breaking authorities and shipbreakers (both employers and workers). The Guidelines contribute to workers protection from workplace dangers, elimination of work-related accidents (injuries, diseases, deaths) and improving the management of occupational safety-health issues in shipbreaking yards. The document is especially intended as guidance to countries where such regulations are limited or nonexistent. It also includes recommendations on the management of hazardous substances, workers protection and training programs. As to the beach shipbreaking, it suggests the following steps in the ships dismantling process - assessing hazardous materials on board, decontamination (including gas-freeing), safe demolition planning, recycling, safe waste management.
On March 15, 2018, based on the European Union's regulations for Waste Shipments, the District Court of Rotterdam Holland convicted for trafficking toxic ships and sentenced the Seatrade shipping company (headquartered in Antwerp Belgium). The company was heavily fined for illegally exporting marine vessels for breaking on the beaches of India and Bangladesh. In addition, two Seatrade CEOs were banned for 1 year from exercising the professions director, commissioner, advisor or employee of a shipping company.
This was a precedent when an European shipping company is held criminally liable for selling scrap vessels to substandard breaking yards in Asia. According to the Prosecutor, the Asian breakyards' "current ship dismantling methods endanger the lives and health of workers and pollute the environment". His request Seatrade's CEOs to face prison time was only waived in light of this being a precedent for such criminal charges.
The verdict set an Europe-wide precedent for holding shipowners accountable for knowingly selling for cash (via shady buyers) vessels for dirty and dangerous scrapping in order to maximize profits.
On December 10, 2018, industry leaders and Sustainable Shipping Initiative (non-profit) announced the launch of SRTI (Ship Recycling Transparency Initiative). This is an online platform via which is shared information on global ship recycling via responsible practices. SRTI is a tool that allows companies to disclose information on ship recycling. The information is available to both industry stakeholders and general public. SRTI connects major shipowners, investors, banks, insurers, cargo owners. Among the largest companies are Swire Shipping (China), Hapag-Lloyd, Maersk, NORDEN, Stolt Tankers, Wallenius Wilhelmsen; GES Bank, Nykredit, Standard Chartered; Lloyd’s Register; Forum for the Future (non-profit).
As of December 2018, EU's European Commission has listed in its "European List of ship recycling facilities" a total of 26 shipyards. Of those, 23 are in Europe and 3 are in non-EU states - 2 in Turkey (LEYAL, LEYAL-DEMTAS) and 1 in USA. Since January 2019, the EU Ship Recycling Regulation requires all ships flagged in an EU Member State to be recycled at an approved facility from this list.
LEYAL Gemi Sokum is Turkey's largest ship dismantling and recycling company, in this business since 1980. Other such major drydock dismantling facilities in Europe are located in Belgium (NV Galloo Recycling Ghent), Denmark (Fornaes, Smedegaarden), France (Gardet Bezenac Recycling, Grand Port Maritime de Bordeaux, Les Recycleurs bretons), Latvia (Tosmares kugubuvetava), Lithuania (UAB APK, UAB Armar, UAB Vakaru refonda), Holland (Keppel-Verolme, Scheepsrecycling Nederland), Poland (ALMEX), Portugal (Navalria-Docas, Construçoes e Reparacoes Navais, DDR VESSELS XXI), UK (Able UK Ltd, Harland and Wolff Heavy Industries Ltd, Swansea Drydock Ltd).
In 2017, world's fleet included over 50,000 vessels, of which 835 were recycled.
"Ship Breakers" is a term related to a company that serves the market of ship dismantling (ships demolition). The business of a ship breaking company generally includes scrapping and recycling ships, selling used ships equipment, and sometimes - the purchase and sale of second hand ships and other marine vessels. The biggest ship breaking companies operate their businesses in impoverished Third World countries - few environmental or safety restrictions, the cheapest labor cost, huge profit margins.
The "Shipbreakers" documentary (2004) is a great Canadian film about the Alang ship breaking yard in India - notorious with its deplorable working conditions, and in the same time the world's largest ships scrapping yard ever operated.
Ship Breaking Company Names (Website-Address-Phone)
|Country (Year Estblished)||Employees||Annual Revenue (millions USD)||Misc info / recycling products|
|Al-Hamza Ship Breaking (alhamzagroup.com)||PAKISTAN (1974)||500-1000||50-100||ship breaking scrap seller, a high volume supplier of raw Onyx.|
|Andrew Agency ("A-702 Saima Trade Tower, Chundrigar Road, Karachi sindh 74100", 92-21-32211413)||PAKISTAN (1978)||100-500||5-10||Buying non ferreous metal and ship breaking scrap, battery scrap.|
|Euroasia Group of companies (europe.bloombiz.com, "Hakim building, Shahra-e-Faisal Karachi sindh 75400", 92-21-4330062)||PAKISTAN (2002)||50||0,1||Import-export of all kind of ship scraps, minerals and metals.|
|Geofman Trading (geofman.com)||PAKISTAN||-||-||-|
|Habib Maritime Ltd ("2nd floor. UBL building. Chundrigar Road, Karachi sindh 74200", 92-21-2411887)||PAKISTAN (1958)||10-50||1-2||trading house.|
|Shamsain Marketing Services ("Plot No AC2, M1, Clifton Pride, Khayaban-e-Saadi, Clifton Block, Karachi sindh 74600", 92-21-3586591)||PAKISTAN (2000)||500-1000||50-100||large projects.|
|Star Cotton Corp (dadasons.com)||PAKISTAN||-||-||-|
|Transtrade Pvt Ltd (transtradegroup.net)||PAKISTAN||-||-||-|
|Oge Gemi Sokum Ithalat Ihracat (ogegemi.com)||TURKEY||-||-||-|
|Dachang International Shipping Co (mtu-mts.com)||CHINA (2006)||10-50||0,5-1||Services - ship building and conversion, ship repairs, shipbreaking, new and used marine equipment, purchase and sale ships in China.|
|Haosen Business Service Co ("No1Heping road, Hengshui Hebei 050000", 86-0318-8066321)||CHINA (2006)||10-50||0,5-1||Buying ships for scrap (oil tankers, cargo passenger and container ships of over 10,000 tons).|
|Shanghai Xinhua Iron and Steel (xhsteel.com)||CHINA||-||-||-|
|Xinhui Shuangshui Shipbreaking (sbsteel.com)||CHINA||-||-||-|
|Ta-Ho Maritime Corp (thmc.com.tw)||Taiwan||-||-||-|
|Pharung Shipyard (pharungyard.com.vn)||Vietnam||-||-||-|
|Sunlift Subic International Corp ("157 Crowne Bay Tower, Roxas Boulevard Paranaque Metro, Manila 1702", 63-2-5570512)||Philippines (2004)||5-10||0,1-0,5||Vessels scrap (HMS 1-2-3), bulk and container (fob and c&f basis).|
|7Riches International Trading Corp ("B2, L5, St Elizabeth St., Mary Homes, Molino 4, Bacoor, Cavite Manila 4300", 63-2-6683874)||Philippines (1998)||5-10||0,1-0,5||A trader of marine products, minerals and scrap, oil, shipping services.|
|August International FZC ("PO box 30457 Sharjah", 971-6-5621366)||UAE (1991)||10-50||0,1-0,5||A stainless steel scrap trader (types SS 304, 316, 409, 410), bulk HMS scrap, buying ships for scrap. Capacity up to 500 tons per month, has yards in Alang, Bombay, Calcutta.|
|Parus International FZC (parus-co.com)||UAE (2010)||5-10||5-10||Petroleum products, steel scrap, shipbreaking.|
|Magnate Steel (India, drydock ship breaking)||Madagascar||100||-||recycling ops in Mauritius, India, USA, Canada.|
|Able UK Ltd (ableuk.com)||England UK||-||-||-|
|Fornaes ApS (fornaes.dk)||Denmark||-||-||-|
|Van Heyghen Recycling (vanheyghenrecycling.com)||Belgium||-||-||-|
|All Star Metals LLC ( allstarmetals.com)||Brownsville, Texas USA||-||-|
|Bay Bridge Enterprises (adani.com)||Chesapeake, Virginia USA||-||-||since 2005 - a subsidiary of Adani Group. capacity 3 ships at a time|
|Donjon Marine Co (donjon.com)||Hillside, New Jersey USA||-||-||-|
|ESCO Marine (escomarine.us)||Brownsville, Texas USA||-||-||ship recycling ships breaking|
|International Shipbreaking Ltd LLC||Brownsville, Texas USA||-||-||-|
|Marine Metal Inc (16901 RL Ostos Road Brownsville TX, 956-831-4284)||Brownsville, Texas USA||-||-||-|
|United Steel Supply Inc (15 ml south of NOLA)||New Orleans, Louisiana USA (2006)||100-500||10-50||high quality HMS 1 and HMS 2 scrap steel, scrap metal, cast iron. Capacity - up to 100,000 metric tons per month.|
|International Marine Salvage Inc (internationalmarinesalvage.com)||Port Colborne (Ontario, Canada)||-||-||operates 5 facilities.|
Shipbreaking business - YouTube video
The Pakistan's Gadani shipbreaking yard is located some 65 km south-west of Karachi - the country's most populous city, main seaport and financial center. Gadani is the world's 3rd largest shipbreaking yard after Alang (India) and Chittagong (Bangladesh).
- men die, some break legs, some tear muscle, but work there never stops
- on their ship-dismantling jobs here workers make GBP 2,25 ($3,5) a day
- most of the workers at Gadani are Pashtuns (a very poor local tribe).
The following lengthy video is a NAT GEO release about the Alang shipbreaking yard in India - the world's "biggest graveyard for ships". Over half of the marine vessels in the world are scrapped in India (at the Mumbai and Alang yards). The video explains a lot about the ship scrapping business in general. It is made professionally, and is well worth watching.
Ship cemeteries are where the beauty of all once beloved ships shines for the very last time. From most rusty freighters to 5-star cruise liners and famous passenger ships - literally dumped on the beach of some of the poorest countries in the world to be stripped of all honors and destroyed by the wretched of the earth. Thousands of the world's biggest ships have been driven onto the remote beaches of Alang, Chittagong, Gadani, Aliaga - to be seen no more.
Old ships names have become a matter of investigation these days. With the exception of the newest passenger ships, almost all the rest are with different from their launch names, usually changed the instant the vessel receives new owner, or even new operator. Holland America Line ships are well-known for bearing "recycled" names - unique practice of using one name for different vessels over the years, though a charming sentimental way of connecting past and future for this over 130-year old passenger shipping company.
- HSC (high speed craft)
- MF (motor ferry)
- MS / MV (motor ship / vessel)
- MSY (motor sailing yacht)
- MY (motor yacht)
- NS (nuclear ship)
- RMS (royal mail ship)
- RV (research vessel)
- SB (sailing barge)
- SS (steam ship)
- SV (sailing vessel)
- SY (sailing yacht)
|Crurrent Ship name||Year built||Former names||Owner company|
|SS Misr||1918||Nile River Cruises|
|Sea Cloud||1931||Hussar II, Angelita||Sea Cloud Cruises|
|PS Waverley||1947||Small Cruise Lines|
|Astoria||1948||MS Stockholm, Volkerfreundschaft, Volker, Fridtjof Nansen, Italia I, Italia Prima, Valtur Prima, Caribe, Athena, MS Azores||CMV|
|MV Liseron||1952||The Boat Company|
|Lisboa||1955||Port Melbourne, Therisos Express, Danae, Starlight Express, Baltica, Princess Danae||Small Cruise Lines|
|MS Nordstjernen||1956||Det Bergenske Dampskibsselskap, Troms Fylkes Dampskibsselskap, Hurtigruten, Vestland Rederi||Hurtigruten|
|MV Hans Hansson||1960||RS Skomvaer II||Quixote Expeditions|
|Funchal||1961||Small Cruise Lines|
|Galapagos Legend||1963||Baltic Star, Stena Finlandia, Helgoland, Galapagos Discovery||Small Cruise Lines|
|MY Callisto||1963||Variety Cruises|
|Andaman Explorer||1963||Atlantic Guard, MS Marina||Pandaw|
|Hebridean Princess||1964||Columbia||Hebridean Island Cruises|
|Belmond Road to Mandalay||1964||Belmond|
|Marco Polo||1965||MS Aleksandr Pushkin||CMV|
|Porto||1965||Istra, Astra, Astra I, Nautilus 2000, Arion||Small Cruise Lines|
|National Geographic Endeavour||1966||Marburg, Lindmar, North Star, Caledonian Star, MS Endeavour||Lindblad Expeditions|
|Ocean Majesty||1966||Juan March, Sol Christina, Kypros Star, Olympic, Homeric||Majestic International Cruises|
|Amusement World||1967||Patricia, Stena Oceanica, Stena Saga, Crown Princess Victoria, Pacific Star, Sun Fiesta, Lion Queen||New Century Tours|
|Louis Aura||1968||Starward, Bolero, Orient Queen||Celestyal Cruises|
|Leisure World||1969||Skyward, Shangri-La World, Asean World, Fantasy World||New Century Tours|
|MV Ushuaia||1970||Researcher, Malcolm Baldrige||Antarpply Expeditions Antarctica|
|mv Discovery||1971||Island Venture, Island Princess, Hyundai Pungak, Platinum, Discovery, Amen||scrapped|
|Ocean Star Pacific||1971||Nordic Prince, Carousel, Aquamarine, Arielle, Pacific, Pacific Victory||scrapped|
|Knyaz Vladimir||1971||MV Eagle, MV Azur, MV Royal Iris, MV Roy Star||Black Sea Cruises|
|Black Watch||1972||Royal Viking Star||Fred Olsen|
|Oriental Dragon||1972||Long Jie, Omar III, Pongnae, Hyundai Pongnae, Superstar Sagittarius, Sun Viking||Small Cruise Lines|
|MS Expedition||1972||Kattegat, nf Tiger, Tiger, Ålandsfärjan||G Adventures|
|Boudicca||1973||Royal Viking Sky||Fred Olsen|
|Albatros||1973||Royal Viking Sea, Royal Odyssey, Norwegian Star, MS Crown||Phoenix Reisen|
|mv Aegean Odyssey||1973||Voyages to Antiquity|
|Oasia||1973||Vistafjord, Caronia, Saga Ruby||scrapped|
|Monserrat||1973||Maholy, Frigo Pedernales||G Adventures Galapagos|
|RV Charaidew||1973||ABN Charaidew||ABN-Assam Bengal Navigation|
|Rex Fortune||1974||Golden Odyssey, Astra II, Omar II, Macau Success||Small Cruise Lines|
|Ocean Diamond||1974||Begonia, Femhil, Explorer Starship, Song of Flower, Le Diamant||Quark Expeditions|
|Moby Niki ferry||1974||Europafarjan 3, Corsica Serena 2, European Voyager||MOBY LINES|
|Moby Vincent ferry||1974||Stena Normandica, St Brendan||MOBY LINES|
|Ocean Adventurer||1975||Alla Tarasova, Clipper Adventurer, Sea Adventurer||Quark Expeditions|
|MS Delphin||1975||Byelorussiya, Kazakhstan II||Pampa Cruises|
|MV Glen Massan||1975||The Majestic Line|
|Moby Kiss ferry||1975||Mette Mols, Banasa, Galaxy||MOBY LINES|
|MV Plancius||1976||HNLMS Tydeman||Oceanwide Expeditions|
|Wilderness Explorer||1976||Spirit of Discovery||Un-Cruise Adventures|
|Moby Otta ferry||1976||Tor Scandinavia, World Wide Expo, Princess of Scandinavia||MOBY LINES|
|Moby Drea ferry||1976||Tor Britannia, Scandinavian Star, Prince of Scandinavia||MOBY LINES|
|Golden Iris||1977||Cunard Conquest, Cunard Princess, MS Rhapsody||Mano Cruises|
|Moby Corse ferry||1978||Dana Anglia, Duke of Scandinavia, Pont L'Abbe||MOBY LINES|
|Admiralty Dream||1979||Spirit of Alaska||Alaskan Dream Cruises|
|MV Isabela II||1979||Metropolitan Touring Galapagos|
|Celestyal Crystal||1980||Viking Saga, Sally, MS Albatross, MS Silja Opera, Louis Cristal||Celestyal Cruises|
|MS Berlin||1980||Princess Mahsuri, Orange Melody, Spirit of Adventure, FTI Berlin||FTI Cruises|
|Baranof Dream||1980||Spirit of Columbia||Alaskan Dream Cruises|
|Wawel ferry||1980||Scandinavia, Tzarevetz, Fiesta, Stena Fantasia, P&O Canterbury, Alkmini A||POLFERRIES|
|Regina Baltica ferry||1980||Viking Song, Braemar, Anna Karenina||BALEARIA|
|SNAV Aurelia ferry||1980||SNAV Ferries|
|GNV Azzurra ferry||1980||Gotland, Wasa Star, Peter Wessel, SNAV Toscana||GRANDI NAVI VELOCI|
|Viking Rosella ferry||1980||VIKING LINE|
|Prevelis ferry||1980||Preveli, Ferry Orange No 2||ANEK LINES|
|Saga Pearl II||1981||MV Astoria, Quest for Adventure, Saga Pearl 2||Saga Ocean Cruises|
|Saga Sapphire||1981||MS Europa, SuperStar Europe, SuperStar Aries, Holiday Dream, Bleu de France||Saga Ocean Cruises|
|Ocean Dream||1981||Carnival Tropicale, Costa Tropicale, Pacific Star (P&O AU), New Flamenco (Pullmantur), Ocean Dream (Peace Boat)||Peace Boat|
|Almariya ferry||1981||Isabella I, Nordlandia, Nord Gotlandia, Olau Hollandia||TRASMEDITERRANEA|
|Stena Vision ferry||1981||Stena Germanica||STENA LINE|
|Wasa Express ferry||1981||Betancuria, Thjelvar, Rostock, Color Traveller, Sally Star, Travemünde Link, Travemünde||WASA LINE|
|Stena Europe ferry||1981||MS Kronprinsessan Victoria, MS Stena Saga, MS Lion Europe||STENA LINE|
|Stena Saga ferry||1981||Silvia Regina, Stena Britannica||STENA LINE|
|Moby Dada ferry||1981||Finlandia, Queen of Scandinavia, Princess Maria||MOBY LINES|
|Celestyal Olympia||1982||Song of America, MS Sunbird, Thomson Destiny, Louis Olympia||Celestyal Cruises|
|National Geographic Explorer||1982||MS Midnatsol, MS Midnatsol 2, MS Lyngen||Lindblad Expeditions|
|National Geographic Sea Bird||1982||Majestic Explorer, MS Sea Bird||Lindblad Expeditions|
|National Geographic Sea Lion||1982||Great Rivers Explorer, MS Sea Lion||Lindblad Expeditions|
|Ocean Endeavour||1982||Konstantin Simonov, Francesca, The Iris, Kristina Katarina||Quark Expeditions|
|Ocean Gala||1982||MS Scandinavia (DFDS Seaways), MS Stardancer (Royal Admiral Cruises), Viking Serenade (Royal Caribbean ), MS Island Escape (Thomson Cruises)||Small Cruise Lines|
|Safari Voyager||1982||Temtress Voyager, Sea Voyager||Un-Cruise Adventures|
|River Victoria||1982||MS Aleksandr Griboyedov, Knyazhna Viktoria||Uniworld|
|Moby Zaza ferry||1982||Olau Britannia, MS Bayard, Christian IV, MS Julia, Wind Perfection||MOBY LINES|
|Safari Endeavour||1983||Newport Clipper, Spirit of Endeavour||Un-Cruise Adventures|
|SS Legacy||1983||Spirit of '98||Un-Cruise Adventures|
|Thomson Spirit||1983||MS Nieuw Amsterdam, MS Patriot, MS Spirit||Marella Cruises|
|Stena Spirit ferry||1983||Stena Scandinavica||STENA LINE|
|Artania||1984||Royal Princess, MS Artemis||Phoenix Reisen|
|Chichagof Dream||1984||Nantucket Clipper, Spirit of Nantucket, Spirit of Glacier Bay||Alaskan Dream Cruises|
|SeaDream I||1984||Sea Goddess I, Seabourn Goddess I||SeaDream|
|Wilderness Adventurer||1984||Caribbean Prince||Un-Cruise Adventures|
|Marella Celebration||1984||MS Noordam, Thomson Celebration||Marella Cruises|
|Spirit of Enderby||1984||Professor Khromov||Aurora Expeditions|
|MV Coral Expeditions II||1985||Coral Princess II||Coral Expeditions|
|Lord of the Glens||1985||Victoria II, Victoria||Lindblad Expeditions|
|Magellan||1985||MS Holiday (Carnival), Grand Holiday (IberoCruises)||CMV|
|MV Polar Pioneer||1985||Akademik Schuleykin||Aurora Expeditions|
|SeaDream II||1985||Sea Goddess II, Seabourn Goddess II||SeaDream|
|Viking Mariella ferry||1985||VIKING LINE|
|Color Viking ferry||1985||Peder Paars, Stena Invicta||COLOR LINE|
|Alaskan Dream||1986||Executive Explorer||Alaskan Dream Cruises|
|Marella Dream||1986||MS Homeric, MS Westerdam, Costa Europa, Thomson Dream||Marella Cruises|
|Ocean Atlantic||1986||MS Konstantin Chernenko, MS Russ, SC Atlantic||Quark Expeditions|
|Princess Anastasia ferry||1986||Olympia, Pride of Bilbao, SPL Princess Anastasia||MOBY LINES|
|Stena Nautica ferry||1986||Niels Klim, Lion King, Lion King II||STENA LINE|
|Wolin ferry||1986||Öresund, Sky Wind||UNITY LINE|
|Princess Seaways ferry||1986||Peter Pan, Spirit of Tasmania, Spir, Fjord Norway, Princess of Norway||DFDS SEAWAYS|
|Pullmantur Sovereign||1987||Sovereign of the Seas, MS Sovereign||Pullmantur|
|Grand Celebration||1987||MS Celebration, Carnival Celebration, Costa Celebration||Bahamas Paradise Cruise Line|
|Crystal Mozart||1987||Dertour Mozart, MS Mozart||Crystal River Cruises|
|Pride of York ferry||1987||Norsea||P&O FERRIES|
|Pride of Bruges ferry||1987||Norsun||P&O FERRIES|
|Oscar Wilde ferry||1987||Kronprins Harald||IRISH FERRIES|
|Blue Horizon ferry||1987||Superferry Hellas, Varuna||BLUE STAR FERRIES|
|King Seaways ferry||1987||Nils Holgersson, Val de Loire, King of Scandinavia||DFDS SEAWAYS|
|Nissos Rodos ferry||1987||Hellenic Voyager, Ocean Trailer, Kiso||HELLENIC SEAWAYS|
|Balmoral||1988||Crown Odyssey||Fred Olsen|
|ms Prinsendam||1988||Holland America|
|Americana||1988||Yorktown Clipper, Spirit of Yorktown, MS Yorktown||Small Cruise Lines|
|MV Coral Expeditions I||1988||Coral Princess I||Coral Expeditions|
|SuperStar Libra||1988||MS Seaward, Norwegian Sea||Star Cruises|
|Star Pride||1988||Seabourn Pride||Windstar|
|PS Murray Princess||1988||Sealink Travel Group - Captain Cook Cruises|
|Huckleberry Finn ferry||1988||Nils Dacke, Peter Pan, Peter Pan IV||TT LINE|
|MV Skorpios II||1988||Skorpios Cruises Chile|
|Nissos Samos ferry||1988||Ionian Queen, Ionian Glory, New Akashia||HELLENIC SEAWAYS|
|Columbus||1989||Sitmar Fair Majesty, Star Princess, Arcadia, Ocean Village 1, Pacific Pearl||CMV|
|Silver Discoverer||1989||Clipper Odyssey (Zegrahm Expeditions)||Silversea Expeditions|
|Silver Explorer||1989||Delfin Clipper, Sally Clipper, Baltic Clipper, Delfin Star, Dream 21, World Discoverer, World Adventurer, MS Prince Albert II (Society Expeditions)||Silversea Expeditions|
|MV Ortelius||1989||Marina Svetaeva||Oceanwide Expeditions|
|Star Breeze||1989||Seabourn Spirit||Windstar|
|RMS St Helena||1989||St Helena Line|
|Tom Sawyer ferry||1989||TT LINE|
|Pearl Seaways ferry||1989||Athena, Star Aquarius, Langkapuri Star Aquarius, Aquarius, Pearl of Scandinavia||DFDS SEAWAYS|
|Viking Cinderella ferry||1989||MS Cinderella||VIKING LINE|
|Tallink Isabelle ferry||1989||Viking Isabella||TALLINK-SILJA|
|GNV Atlas ferry||1989||Olau Britannia, Pride of Portsmouth, SNAV Lazio||GRANDI NAVI VELOCI|
|GNV Cristal ferry||1989||Olau Hollandia, Pride of Le Havre, SNAV Sardegna||GRANDI NAVI VELOCI|
|Bretagne ferry||1989||BRITTANY FERRIES|
|Orient Queen||1989||Vistamar, Med Queen||Abou Merhi Cruises|
|Mediterranee ferry||1989||Danielle Casanova||CORSICA LINEA|
|Carnival Fantasy||1990||Carnival Cruise Line|
|Pacific Jewel||1990||Crown Princess, A'Rosa Blu, AIDAblu, Ocean Village 2||P&O Cruises|
|Empress Of The Seas||1990||Future Seas, Nordic Empress, Pullmantur Empress||Royal Caribbean|
|Pullmantur Horizon||1990||Island Star, Pacific Dream, MV Horizon||Pullmantur|
|Silver Galapagos||1990||Galapagos Explorer II (Renaissance Cruises)||Silversea Expeditions|
|Aegean Paradise||1990||Happy Dolphin, Hainan Empress, Delphin Voyager, Cruise One, Orient Venus||New Century Tours|
|Asuka 2||1990||Crystal Harmony||NYK Cruises|
|MV Corinthian||1990||Renaissance Four, Clelia II, Orion II||Grand Circle Cruise Line|
|MS Bremen||1990||Frontier Spirit||Hapag-Lloyd Cruises|
|Vidanta Alegria||1990||Crown Monarch, Nautican, Walrus, Jules Verne, Alexander von Humboldt, MV Voyager||Vidanta Cruises|
|Star Pisces||1990||MS Kalypso (Viking Line ferry)||Star Cruises|
|Wind Surf||1990||Club Med 1||Windstar|
|Estrella del Mar||1990||G Adventures Galapagos|
|MY Pegasus||1990||Variety Cruises|
|Sanctuary Nile Adventurer||1990||Sanctuary Retreats Egypt|
|Silja Serenade ferry||1990||TALLINK-SILJA|
Next video shows transatlantic ocean liners operated by Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (CGT, aka French Line) - founded 1861, defunct 1975.