Kota Kupang is a major seaport and the biggest city on Timor Island (Indonesia). It is also the capital of East Nusa Tenggara province, with a population of around 350,000. This Indonesian port city is part of the free trade zone East Timor–Indonesia–Australia.
Kupang was an important seaport for trading during the period when Indonesia was first Portuguese, then a Dutch colony. Dutch East India Company entered the town in 1613 after defeating the Portuguese on Solor Island. Kupang had a strategic location for controlling Timor Island (allowing monitoring of the shipping traffic to the southern coast) and freshwater source (Koinino River). Influenced by the Portuguese population, by the mid-17th century Kupang became a Portuguese stronghold. In 1653, the Dutch Fort Concordia was constructed to the left of Koinino River's estuary.
In the early 20th century, the town became landing and refueling point by long-distance flights between Europe and Australia. During WW2 (1939-1945) it was occupied by Japan (1942-1945) and much of the old town was bombed and destroyed by the Allies.
The city's current economy is based on the cement industry, seaport (export and import of goods) and services (trading, transportation, food, beverages), salt production, commercial fishing (exporting mainly to Japan, East Timor, USA, and Thailand). Port Kupang is the first for yachts participating in "Sail Indonesia" (annual sailing regatta starting in Darwin NT Australia). After Kupang, the sail yachts head north to stop at various Indonesian ports and ending in Singapore.