Livingston Island (aka Smolensk Island in Russia) is the second largest of South Shetland Islands in Southern Ocean (Antarctica). The island has length 73 km (45 mi), width range 5-36 km (3-22 mi) and total land area 798 km2 (308 mi2), ranking it Antarctica's second-largest (after King George Island - total area 1150 km2 / 444 mi2). The highest elevation point is Mt Friesland (1700 m / 5578 ft) in Tangra Mountains.
The island is located approx 110 km (68 mi) northwest of Antarctic Peninsula (Cape Roquemaurel, separated by Bransfield Strait), approx 809 km (503 mi) southeast of Cape Horn (South America, separated by the Drake Passage) and approx 1065 km (661 mi) south of Falkland Islands.
Livingston Island's closest neighbours are Greenwich Island (east), Deception Island (south, at only 18 km / 11 mi) and Snow Island (southwest). Off its north coast, there are many islets and sea rocks, the largest of which are Rugged Island (with its freshwater Basalt Lake), Half Moon Island and Desolation Island.
Livingston's coastline is formed by ice cliffs, coves, rocky beaches. Most of the surface is ice-covered. Byers Peninsula forms the island's west extremity. The bays are named South, False, Moon, Hero, Barclay, New Plymouth, Osogovo, Walker. The weather is windy, humid, mostly sunless, with blizzards, max temperature 3 C (37 F) in the summer and lowest temperature −11 C (12 F) in the winter.
In 1958 was initiated the Antarctic cruise ship) tourism. Today, the number of visiting tourists is in tens of thousands (summer-only) annually, with over 95% of the cruisetours being to South Shetland Islands and Antarctica Peninsula, Among the most visited destinations in the archipelago are Hannah Point (on Livingston's southern coast), Half Moon Island and Deception Island, as well as Aitcho Islands (north of Greenwich Island).
Livingston Island cruise terminal
Passengers are offloaded via Zodiacs (inflatable boats used for landings) and offered as shore activities nature walks, skiing, climbing, wildlife viewing. Most cruise ships to Livingston Island anchor at Half Moon Island.