USCG-US Coast Guard (Icebreakers)
Specifications of USCGC Polar Sentinel icebreaker
|Year built||2025 new ship|
|Builder||VT Halter Marine (Pascagoula, Mississippi USA)|
|Class||USCG Polar Security Cutter / Polar Class 2 Icebreaker|
|Ferry route / homeports||Seattle, Washington USA|
|Building cost||USD 745,9 million (EUR 671 million / GBP 574 million)|
|Engines (power)||MAK-Caterpillar (33.7 MW / 45192 hp)|
|Speed||16 kn / 30 kph / 18 mph|
|Length (LOA)||140 m / 459 ft|
|Beam (width)||27 m / 89 ft|
|Gross Tonnage||14300 gt|
|Owner||USA government (via United States Armed Forces)|
|Operator||USCG (United States Coast Guard)|
USCGC Polar Sentinel icebreaker Review
Review of USCGC Polar Sentinel icebreaker
USCGC Polar Sentinel is the first in a three-ship series of American polar icebreakers of the new "Polar Security Cutter" heavy icebreakers (Polar Class 2) owned by the USA's government and operated by the USCG (branch of the US Armed Forces). "USCGC" stands for "United States Coast Guard Cutter". The term "cutter" is used for all USCG-commissioned ships with minimum LOA length 65 ft (19,8 m) and permanently crewed (with assigned personnel accommodated in shipboard cabins).
USCGC Polar Sentinel is currently under construction and scheduled for commissioning in May 2025. The second icebreaker (yet to be named) is currently planned for completion in September 2026. A third (optional/if ordered) sistership could be delivered by the end of 2027.
Polar Security Cutter Program - history
The USA's "Polar Security Cutter Program" is a 2012-launched (as PIB/ Polar Icebreaker) program (fiscal year/FY2013 budget submission) of the USCG (United States Coast Guard) and the USN (United States Navy) to replace the USA's aging icebreaker fleet with three newbuild "Polar Security Cutters" (PSC/multimission icebreaking vessels).
Until 2025 (when the first newbuild will be commissioned), the USCG has in operation only two icebreakers - USCGC Polar Star (1973-built, Project WAGB-10/"heavy icebreaker") and USCGC Healy (2000-built, Project WAGB-20/"medium icebreaker").
The new (Polar Security) icebreakers are classified by the USCG as "heavy icebreakers" and are intended to support the agency's statutory Arctic missions as well as USAP (United States Antarctic Program) and Antarctic Service (1959-founded government organization) with ODF (Operation Deep Freeze/the USA's Antarctic exploration missions with military support).
In the future, the USCG plans to expand its polar fleet by adding to the three "heavy icebreakers" three new "Arctic Security Cutters" classed as "medium icebreakers".
The Polar Security Cutter Program is joint-managed by the USCG (shipowner and commissioner/operator) and the USN (supervising the shipbuilding/construction process) through an integrated office (August 2016-established) to reduce acquisition costs. The US Coast Guard and Navy redefined the project's specifications to reduce the time and costs of the ship design and building.
On October 25, 2016, the USCG released a summary of the RFI (request for information) for acquiring 3x heavy icebreakers. Construction works were planned to start in 2019-Q4 (1st unit), 2021-Q2 (2nd unit), and 2022-Q2 (3rd unit). The vessels' were originally planned to be delivered to and commissioned by the USCG in 2023-Q4 (1st), 2025-Q2 (2nd), and 2026-Q2 (3rd).
On February 22, 2017, the USCG contracted five shipbuilding companies to develop design studies and analysis for a "heavy polar icebreaker". The shipbuilders were contracted at a fixed-price (USD 4 million each/US$20M total) and included:
- Fincantieri SpA (1959-founded; headquartered in Trieste, Italy/Europe's largest shipbuilder; specializes in design and construction of both military and commercial vessels/also cruise liners; has 7x large-capacity shipyards in Italy, Norway, Romania, Vietnam). Fincantieri was contracted via the subsidiary Fincantieri Marine Group LLC (headquartered in Washington DC).
- Bollinger Shipyards LLC (1946-founded; headquartered in Lockport, Louisiana USA; has 13x shipyards and 40 drydocks in Louisiana, Florida, Texas; specializes in the construction of naval ships - coastal patrol boats, fast-response cutters, rescue and salvage ships)
- National Steel and Shipbuilding Company/NASSCO (1905-founded, headquartered in San Diego, California USA; has 3x shipyards in San Diego CA, Norfolk Virginia, Mayport Florida; specializes in the construction of cargo ships and auxiliary military vessels)
- Huntington Ingalls Industries Inc/HII (2011-founded as a division of the 2008-founded Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding/part of Northrop Grumman Corporation; headquartered in Newport News, Virginia USA; currently ranked the USA's largest military shipbuilding company)
- VT Halter Marine Inc (1996-founded as Halter Marine Group Inc; headquartered in Pascagoula, Mississippi USA; since 2003 owned by Singapore Technologies Engineering Ltd/aka ST Engineering/1967-founded, headquartered in Singapore, has 100+ subsidiaries in 24 countries)
The five contracted shipbuilders were allowed to use "parent designs" (including "foreign designs"), which allowed using existing polar icebreaker designs and modifying them, rather than developing brand new designs.
On April 4, 2017, were released the icebreaker's system specifications. In the period May 2017 through March 2018, at NRC (National Research Council's ice tank facilities in St John's, Newfoundland Canada) were conducted model testing of hull designs and propulsion systems (types and configurations) providing data on the design's performance/ice maneuverability and icebreaking resistance. On October 19, 2017, the five potential shipbuilders received the official draft request for the ship's detailed design. On March 2, 2018, was released a request for proposal for the ship's advance procurement and detailed design.
In September 2018 was announced the new icebreakers' class (Polar Security Cutter/renamed from "Polar Icebreaker") and that they would have hull designation WMSP (Maritime Security Polar) which allows them to carry deck-mounted weapons.
On June 17, 2019, was announced the ships' homeport (Seattle, Washington USA).
On April 23, 2019, the USCG officially contracted VT Halter Marine for the Polar Security-class icebreaker's design and construction. The contract value was USD 745,9 million (EUR 671M / GBP 574M) for the first vessel (Polar Sentinel), with two optional units by the same design.
In 2020 was estimated that the total procurement costs of the icebreakers is USD 2,673 billion, including US$1,038 billion (1st ship), US$794M (2nd ship), and US$841M (3rd ship). The shipbuilder’s portion of the total cost was USD 1,825 billion, including US$746M (1st), US$544M (2nd) and US$535M (3rd).
- On December 30, 2021, was exercised the option for the second unit (Polar TBN), and the vessel was officially ordered at contract value USD 552,6 million (EUR 490M / GBP 417M). Construction works are planned to start in 2023 and the second ship is to be delivered in September 2026.
- There is an option for a third vessel in this series, but its order is still not placed. If ordered, its contract value would be USD 601,5 million (EUR 538M / GBP 451M / currency exchange rates 2022 March), which means that the entire project's (3-ship) cost is ~USD 1,94 billion.
On May 7, 2019, VT Halter Marine in a press release announced that its icebreaker design is a modified version of "Polarstern 2" (German multipurpose icebreaking RV/polar Research and Supply Vessel, with planned delivery in 2026 and building cost ~EUR 800M). Halter Marine also stated that for the project they've sub-contracted the companies TAI Engineers LLC (Technology Associates Inc, design/marine engineering and naval architecture), Trident Maritime Systems (diesel-electric propulsion system), ABB Ltd (Azipod propulsion units), Raytheon Technologies (command and control systems), Caterpillar Inc (main diesel engines), Jamestown Metal Marine Sales Inc (turnkey interior design and staterooms), Bronswerk Heat Transfer BV (HVAC/Heating-Ventilation-Air-Conditioning system).
Initially, the shipbuilder announced that the first icebreaker is scheduled for delivery in 2024-Q2, the second - in 2025-Q4, and the third - in 2027-Q4. However, due to design changes and shipbuilding infrastructure issues, the construction works were significantly delayed. The first ship is currently planned for delivery in 2025 May, the second - in 2026 September.
Of the total Polar Security Cutter Program funding, the US Navy (through its Shipbuilding Account) provided US$300M ($150M in FY2017 plus another $150M in FY2018). Through the USCG's budget, the Program received US$190,6M (FY2013 thru FY2017), US$59,6M (FY2018), US$750M (FY2019), US$485,13 (FY2020), US$1,189 billion (FY2021).
According to the shipbuilder, most of the construction works/including the drydock assembly and wetdock outfitting will be performed in Mississippi (Pascagoula/61%). Other locations involved in the project (hull blocks, machinery, equipment) are in the states Louisiana (Metairie/12%, New Orleans/12%), Illinois (Mossville/4%), California (San Diego/4%), Alabama (Mobile/2%), Florida (Boca Raton/2%), other (3%).
USCGC Polar Sentinel vessel details and technology
The vessel's name (USCGC Polar Sentinel) was officially revealed on February 24, 2022, by Admiral Karl Schultz (USCG's 26th Commandant). He also announced that construction works will start in 2022 and the ship will be delivered by May 2025.
The USCG's Polar Security icebreakers are the world's largest coast guard vessels. The hull is ice-classed "PC2" (Polar Class 2) which allows year-round operations in multi-year ice conditions.
The ship has LOA length 460 ft (140 m), width 88 ft (27 m), draft 36 ft (11 m), displacement tonnage 23300 tonnes (22900 long tons at full load), min endurance 80 days and max endurance 90 days (independent operations without food or fuel resupply), lifespan 40 years. The designed minimum operational range (at speed 12 knots / 14 mph / 22 kph, in ice-free waters) is 21500 nm (24440 mi / 40000 km).
The ship provides staterooms for 186 people (crew, scientists, contract personnel), Gym (weight machines, free weights, cardio machines), Messroom (bar lounge), Dining Room, Scientist Lounge (Conference Room & Library), Ship Store/Convenience Shop, Laundry Room (self-serve), Barber Shop, Infirmary/Medical Facility.
The max icebreaking capability is 8 ft (2,4 m) while navigating continuously through packed ice at speed 3 knots (3,5 mph / 5,6 kph). By backing and ramming, the ship can break through 21 ft (6,4 m) thick pressure ridges (made up of angular ice blocks). The curved bow allows the ship to ride up and break the ice using her weight.
The ship has a large aft-positioned Helideck to serve various aircraft, including heavy-lift cargo helicopters (like Sikorsky CH-53K King Stallion), military helicopters (like Sikorsky H-60), USCH rescue helicopters (like MH-60T Jayhawk, MH-65 Dolphin). The aft-located Cargo Deck can accommodate ISO vans (intermodal/shipping containers) used as portable science labs and workstations.
The powerplant is based on medium-speed marine diesel engines (gen-sets/electricity generators), with total power output 33,7 MW (45190 hp). The propulsion system is diesel-electric and based on 2x ABB Azipod units (360-degree rotating thrusters) plus an ABB shaft line (driving aft FPPs/fixed pitch propellers).
Shipboard facilities include modular spaces (depending on the particular mission), laboratories (including portable labs), cargo hold and garage, several cranes (with different lifting capacities). a scientific moon pool/wet porch (a floor opening in the hull for direct access to the sea, allowing deployment of underwater instruments/ROVs and AUVs, and divers).
Science facilities include Main Lab, Wet Lab, Dry Lab, Bio-Chem Lab, Electronics Lab, Future Science Lab, Meteorological Lab, Photography Lab, ISO-Container Lab, Freezer, Refrigerator, Climate Control Chambers, Staging Areas (with bridge cranes and hoists).
What is known so far is that the Polar Security Cutters' weaponry includes two machine cannons (Mk44 Bushmaster chain gun/30 mm single-barrel chain-driven autocannon) plus six 50-caliber Browning M2 (12,7 mm heavy machine guns). The ship's design was specifically altered to allow "space, weight, and power" for offensive (modular type) weapons. That the new icebreakers could carry "cruise missiles" was mentioned by Admiral Paul Zukunft (USCG's 25th Commandant) on January 10, 2018, at the annual Surface Navy Association conference.
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