Review of Icebreakers
Here you'll find an extensive list of icebreakers (icebreaker ships) operating in the regions of Antarctica (South America and Australia) and the Arctic Ocean - Russia (Asia and Europe) and North America (Canada and USA). The world's largest icebreaker shipowners (with the largest fleets) are the countries with large ice-covered territories - Russia and the United States and Canada - followed by Finland, Sweden, Germany. Most of the icebreaking vessels are government-owned, but there's quite a number of privately-owned (commercially used) icebreaker ships as well. Some of those are nuclear-powered (all Russian-built), the majority being diesel-powered.
Icebreakers are special-purpose (assisting or research) marine vessels. Some operate on rivers, but most are ocean-going ships able to move and easily navigate through ice-covered seas. Icebreaker ships are mainly used to provide safe passing for other ships (cargo, fishing or riverboats). There are also smaller icebreaker boats and tugboats used on inland waterways (rivers and canals).
Note: The above and below computer-generated images represents the new-design Finnish icebreaking ships with ABB Azipod propulsion (total power output 19 MW / 25000 hp). The first of them (Polaris) was launched in April 2016.
Often, icebreakers are used to free icebound ships or to tow vessels in distress. Some ice-breakers are used for polar research expeditions in Antarctica and Arctic regions. Even South Africa has such "heavy duty" ships for carrying out scientific studies there.
Today's Arctic offshore drilling operations also need icebreaking vessels to supply the drilling sites with cargo and technical equipment, and also to protect the drilling ships and the oil (gas) platforms from the ice (including from icebergs).
Icebreaker ship design
The icebreaker's design has the following most prominent features:
- ice-strengthened hull. Since the sea ice's bending (flexural) strength is low, it usually breaks easily and submerges under the hull. When the ice is thick, the ship drives its bow onto it, and the vessel's weight is used to break it. The hull is made from steels retaining their strength at low temperatures. Additionally, the hull is reinforced (constructed with thicker steels) at the bow (fore), the stern (aft) and the "ice belt" at the waterline (where the hull meets the water surface). The hull is double, and painted with special polymer paints for low friction with the ice.
- ice-clearing shape. Broken ice buildups in front of the icebreaker can significantly slow it down. To prevent buildups, the ship's design requires a special hull shape to move the broken ice around the vessel. The hull is gradually sloped at the ship's bow, allowing it to ride up over the ice, so the vessel's weight to break it.
- heavy (more DWT tonnage) for their size (for more effective icebreaking)
- high output power engines. The vessel's navigation and propulsion systems have some external units (like propellers, shafts, rudder, etc) that can be damaged by the broken ice. This makes the ship's ability to propel itself quickly and to effectively clear the ice debris from its path an essential safety issue. The extra power comes from gas turbines or from the nuclear reactors of the world's largest (Russian) icebreakers.
- air-bubbling and heated water-jet systems - below waterline, heated water is jetted to help break the ice and high-pressured air is used to move the debris out of the way.
- special water ballast system - it allows the ships to rapidly move large amounts of their ballast water, thus easily shifting weight when needed for the ice-breaking.
- propulsion system - when the ship is in motion, its rudder and propellers are protected from the ice by the so called "ice horn" (when in reverse) and "ice knife" (when in forwards). If the propeller hits ice, this won't stop the engine. Additionally, the propellers are made extra strong and with replaceable blades, that can be easily changed at sea. Powerful thrusters help the navigation in tight icepacked spaces. All icebreaker ships have no stabilizers.
- powerful lights - most of the operations are done in winter (dark) conditions.
- helipad with helicopter - for scientific works, search & rescue operations, spotting open water, guiding the ship.
Most of the newbuilt icebreakers and many of the newly refitted ones are equipped with Azimuth thrusters (aka Azipods). These new-generation propulsion units replace the traditional "fixed propeller-rudder" system with 360-degree horizontally-rotating pods. These units give the vessel a better maneuverability and an improved ice-breaking capability. Azipods additionally allow the icebreaker to move astern, thus opening a wider channel for the following ships in the convoy. On the above picture you can see another popular ice-breaker design, with 3 bow thrusters mounted inside the hull. Below you see the Baltika ice-breaker ship design.
This is an unique project, that resulted in constructing the world's first marine vessel with an asymmetric (oblique) hull. This allows the ship to also move sideways (with a large angle of attack) for opening a wider channel for bigger ships.
The first icebreakers were ice-strengthened sail ships used for polar exploration. Their hulls were covered outside with bands of iron, plus metal sheeting at the ship's bow (forward-most part), stern (aft-most part) and along the keel (protruding below and along the ship's central line).
Next-generation icebreakers were steam-powered. Those were wooden steamers propelled by a stern paddlewheel or by two paddle-wheels (mounted portside and starboard). One of the first such ships was constructed in the USA - named "City Ice Boat" and built in 1837 for the city of Philadelphia (Pennsylvania state). Its paddles were made of wood (reinforced with iron).
The first metal-hull icebreaker (with a rounded shape) was Russian - named "Pilot", launched in 1864 and used until 1890 for operations in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea (between Finland, Estonia and Russia). Its bow was also altered for a better ice-clearing capability.
Germany's first ever icebreaker - named "Eisbrecher I" - was built with the Pilot's design and used for operations on Elbe River. The world's first polar icebreaker was built in England. Named "Yermak", the ship was built in 1897 under a Russian Navy's contract. Its weight was 5000 tons, with steam engines delivering a 10000 horsepower (~7450 kW) output. This icebreaker was used until 1963, making it the world's longest serving.
Canada's first icebreakers were used on Saint Lawrence River (connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Great Lakes). The first Canadian Arctic icebreaker ships were built in 1930 (CGS McLean) and 1952 (CGS D'Iberville).
The first diesel-powered icebreaker ship was Swedish - the 4330-ton "Ymer" (1933-1977). Its diesel engine delivered 9000 horsepower (~6700 kW) output. The ship had 2 stern propellers and 1 bow propeller. The Finland's first diesel icebreaker was named "Sisu" (1939-1976). After their decommissioning, both were replaced their much larger versions Ymer (1977) and Sisu (1976). The new-design icebreakers featured a short and wide hull (with a rounded bottom) and powerful diesel-electric propulsion with all 3 propellers (2 stern, 1 bow).
The first Canadian diesel icebreaker was named "CCGS Labrador" (1952-1987, without a bow propeller). The larger and more powerful version was named "CCGS John A Macdonald" (1960-1994, with power output 15000 hp (~11200 kW) and 3 propeller shafts. The country's largest and most powerful icebreaker ship was named "CCGS Louis S St Laurent" (1969-2017). Its original steam plant delivered 27000 hp (~20130 kW). During its 1993 refit, the ship got a new power plant, consisting of 5 marine diesels, 3 diesel generators and 3 electric motors.
The world's most powerful (non-nuclear) icebreaker ships are the USCG vessels Healy (1999) and Mackinaw (2005). They have diesel-electric propulsion with 6 marine diesels combined with 3 gas turbines. Their power plants generate ~18000 hp (~13000 kW) output, and their gas turbines produce a combined ~60000 hp (45000 kW) output.
All still functioning nuclear-powered icebreaker ships are Russian, most of theme being built during the Soviet Union (USSR) time. The world's first ever was named "NS Lenin" (1959-1989, now a museum ship in Port of Murmansk) and was a civilian vessel. The second was named "NS Arktika" (1975-2008) and was the world's first to reach the Geographic North Pole (August 17, 1977).
In 1993 was launched the world's ever largest icebreaker - 50 Let Pobedy (translated "50 Years of Victory"), but under a different name - "NS Ural". Until 2017, this old Arktika-class (Project 10520) was the world's most powerful icebreaker, equipped with 2x OK-900A nuclear reactors (each generating 37000 hp / 27600 kW power output).
Russia's nuclear fleet of ice-breakers is used exclusively in the Arctic Ocean to escort merchant ships and to assist research stations floating in the waters north of Siberia. These nuclear ships are also used for scientific and cruise expeditions, and must sail in ice-cold waters in order to effectively cool their reactors.
Floating nuclear power plant
The world's ever first "floating nuclear power plant" (nuclear reactor at sea) will be built in Russia by October 2016. According to the official news release, this is a floating power generating unit that can be connected via a cable to any offshore or onshore infrastructure to supply it with electricity.
The new technology is unique and has no analogues worldwide. The floating power plant was designed to deliver power to major Russian Arctic Ocean port cities and industrial enterprises (including offshore gas and oil platforms). The new technology allows the power plant to become a marine vessel (displacement tonnage 21,500 tons) manned by a crew of 69.
However, unlike the ice-breaker ships, this is a non self-propelled vessel, so it has to be towed to its destination. On the YouTube video below you can fully enjoy wildlife watching and the Arctic's "icy scenery" views along the North Pole cruise itinerary of this most famous Russian passenger ship.
Note: You can see CruiseMapper's list of all Russian icebreaking vessels in the "Itinerary" section (above, next to "Review")
Rosmorrechflot is Russia's Federal Agency of Sea & River Transport. AARI is an abbreviation for the Russia's "Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute".
Russia’s leading icebreaker shipbuilding yard is the Baltic Shipyard (Baltiysky Zavod Ordzhonikidze / Балтийский завод Орджоникидзе). It is one of the oldest in Russia (founded 1856). The shipyard is part of the Russian joint stock company USC (United Shipbuilding Corporation / Объединeнная судостроительная корпорация).
Baltic Shipyard is located on the Vasilievsky Island (St Petersburg). It is the shipyard that built most of the Soviet Union's nuclear icebreakers. There is currently being built the Viktor Chernomyrdin ship (the yellow-greenish rendering image above). This is the world's largest and most powerful diesel-engined icebreaker (length 482 ft / 145 m, deadweight 22260 DWT). Next photo shows a diesel-powered ship design.
- NS Arktika (2017, nuclear-powered, Project 22220) - the largest icebreaker in the world
- NS Sibir (2019, nuclear-powered, Project 22220) - world's largest
- NS Ural (2020, nuclear-powered, Project 22220) - world's largest
- Viktor Chernomyrdin (Project 22600, Rosmorport) - built 2017 / under construction
Next image shows the design of the new "Project 21900" Russian ships. A total of 5 vessels were built between 2008–2016. Their names are Moskva (2008), Sankt Peterburg (2009), Vladivostok (1015), Murmansk (2015) and Novorossiysk (2016).
Below is shown the "Project 22220" ship design of the Russia's largest nuclear icebreakers currently being under construction in St Petersburg. Their design was developed in 2009 by the Russian research company "Central Design Bureau Iceberg" (St Petersburg-based). This company is a subsidiary of the OJSC company DTsSS ("Dalnevostochnyi Tsentr Sudostroyeniya i Sudoremonta", translated "Far East center for shipbuilding and ship repairs") based in Vladivostok (Primorsky Krai, Russia).
"Yamal LNG" icebreaker
The Russia's "Yamal LNG" project is about designing and building an Arctic icebreaking LNG carrier (LNG=liquid natural gas). The Korean shipbuilder DSME (Daewoo) will built a series of 16 such vessels. They will be operated by the following companies: Sovcomflot (1), MOL (3), Teekay Corporation (6) and Dynagas (5).
The ice-breaking LNG carriers particulars are:
- dual-acting hull form - ice bow (for navigating forward in thin ice and open sea ) and heavy ice-breaking aft (for navigating astern in thick ice)
- hull steel - prepared for operation in temperatures down to -52 Celsius (-61 Fahrenheit)
- strengthened hull (with ice belts - forward and aft)
- ice-breaking capacity - 2,5 m / 8 ft
- LOA length - 300 m / 984 ft
- pod propulsion (3 azimuth thrusters with ~45 MW power output)
- 2 engine rooms with marine diesel-electric power plants
- LNG capacity - 172,000 m3
- each ship has 4-membrane LNG tankers type "GTT NO 96"
- flag-state / registry - Russia
- Russian Register standard - Arc7
- Bureau Veritas standard - Polar Class 3 and 4
Ships' owner and operator is the company "Yamal LNG". This is a joint-venture between Novatek (Russia's largest LNG producer, 60%), Total SA (multinational, 20%) and CNPC (China's largest oil & gas producer-supplier, 20%).
By the Yamal LNG project:
- more than 200 wells will be drilled
- 1 gas terminal will be built
- 3 LNG trains will be constructed, (each with 5,5 million tons per year LNG capacity)
- 16 ice-breaker LNG tankers will be built
These Yamal LNG ships will be based at Port of Sabetta (Yamal Peninsula, Russia). This project is in western Siberia (the estuary of Ob River), which 9 months in the year is ice-bound. The project ensures the shipping of Russian Arctic natural gas (from the South Tambey gas field) to Europe and Asia.
In June 2017 was launched the LNG tanker "Christophe de Margerie". The vessel became the world's first ice-class LNG tanker traveling the Northern Sea Route (Russian Arctic, July through November) without icebreaker escort. The voyage between Asia and Europe takes just 15 days (via Bering Strait), or half the time needed on the route via Suez Canal.
Russian oil tanker icebreaker
In the end of October 2015, the South Korean shipbuilder Samsung started building a series of 6 icebreaker tanker ships by the project "42К Arctic Shuttle Tanker". This project is surveyed by RS (the Russia's Maritime Register of Shipping). The order was placed by SCF Group (shipowner of 3 of the ships), which operator will be Sovcomflot. The ship's particulars are as follows:
- ice-breaking capacity - 2,1 m / 7 ft
- LOA length – 248 m / 814 ft
- breadth / width – 34 m / 112 ft
- depth – 15 m / 49 ft
- draught / draft – 9,5 m / 31 ft
- Deadweight Tonnage (DWT) – 42,000 tons
- flag-state / registry - Russia
All named after famous Russian arctic explorers, all these 6 vessels are of dual class (RS and LR), intended for high-latitudes and year-round operations at extreme cold temperatures (down to – 45°С). Their purpose is for crude oil shipping out of Gulf of Ob (aka Ob Bay, located at the mouth of the Ob River, Kara Sea). Completion and delivery of the first ice-breaking tanker is scheduled for June 2016. The whole series will be completed in 2017.
Currently, SCF is the owner and Sovcomflot the operator of the Kapitan Gotsky vessel (DWT 70,000 tons, class "Ice 1A"). It is an ice-class oil tanker (with strengthened hull / ice-breaking capabilities) built in 2008.
Container cargo ship icebreaker
A truly unique marine vessel is the Russian nuclear iceabreaker NS Sevmorput (built 1988). Its cargo capacity is 74 lighters (flat-bottomed barges of 300 tons capacity each) or 1328 TEU containers (TEU = twenty-foot equivalent unit).
This is currently the only one nuclear merchant ship in the world - operational and still in service. Sevmorput is also the newest of the all 4 nuclear cargo ships in the world ever constructed - together with:
- NS Mutsu (Japan, launched 1972, decommissioned 1992), rebuilt as ocean observation vessel named "Mirai"
- NS Savannah (USA, launched 1962, decommissioned 1972), now museum ship
- NS Otto Hahn (Germany, launched 1968), scrapped 2009
Among the Russian ice-breaker cargo vessels are:
- Vasily Golovnin (FESCO, general cargo ship)*
- MS Norilskiy Nickel (container ship)* - diesel-powered icebreaking cargo ship, designed and built in Germany. This cargo carrier operates independently on an year-around schedule in Siberia - without the assistance of an icebreaker.
- MV Nunavik (bulk carrier)*
Follows the list of UK and US icebreaker ships. Some of them (prefixed with "USCGC" and "CCGS") are in service for the USCG ("United States Coast Guard") and CCG ("Canadian Coast Guard") in the Alaskan and Arctic waters (North America). "NSF" states for "National Science Foundation" (an US Government's research & education agency). "BAS" states for "British Antarctic Survey" (an UK Government's research organisation).
On January 13, 2016, the USCG released requirements for 2 new heavy icebreakers at budget cost USD 1 billion each. There was a meeting with the interested companies in March 2016. The proposed ships will be in use for 40 years. Among the listed requirements are:
- heavy ice-breaking capability (min 6 ft / 2 m) at continuous 3 kn speed (3,5 mph / 5,6 kph)
- ability to break a single-pass channel min 83 ft / 25 m wide
- operational range min 21500 nautical miles (24,440 miles / 40,000 km) at speed 12 kn (14 mph / 22 kph) in ice free waters
- min 80 days without food or fuel replenishment
Among the bidders were the US companies Huntington Ingalls Industries Inc (builder of the newest US icebreaker USCGC Healy (delivered in 1999) and General Dynamics Corp (major US military shipbuilder). For comparison, while the USA has only 2 operational icebreaker ships, Russia has 42 (with another 12 planned or already under construction) and China has 2. The USCG warned that as the Arctic Ocean opens to tourism, mining and oil drilling, the US risks to not have enough capacity for search and rescue ops and also for oil spill response missions.
new Australian Antarctic icebreaker
In October 2015, the Government of Australia revealed a new icebreaker ship design and announced a contract for building a marine science research and supply ice-breaking vessel. Classified as ASRV ("Antarctic Supply Research Vessel") it will allow an extended access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. The ship's equipment also includes a Multibeam Bathymetric Echo Sound system (for seabed mapping), a stern helipad, 3 cargo cranes. Portable research laboratories will boast latest technology equipment.
- Ship design is by the Dutch company Knud E Hansen AS (specializing in naval architecture and marine engineering).
- Shipbuilder is the Holland-based company Damen Shipyards Group.
- The contract was signed with the UK-based DMS Maritime - the Australia's largest maritime services provider (part of Serco Group).
- The new Antarctic icebreaker shipbuilding project has a budget of AUD 1 billion (USD ~720 million).
- The ship will be commissioned in April 2020.
new Chinese icebreaker ship
ABB propulsion system (Azipod thrusters) will power a new Chinese research icebreaking vessel - the first of this type to be built in China. The ship will be equipped with two Azipod VI propulsion units (combined power output 15 MW).
Each of the ABB's propulsion units consists of electrical motor connected to a fixed-pitch propeller (mounted on the motor shaft). The thruster is able to turn 360 degrees.
- The ship's displacement is 14300 tons.
- The ship will be powered by four diesel engines. Along with both Azipod VI units, ABB also supplies A100-M turbochargers for enhanced engine load response.
- The ice-breaking capability is up to 1,5 m (5 m) forwards and backwards, at continuous speed of 2-3 knots (2,3-3,5 mph / 3,7-5,5 kph).
- The vessel will be operated by "Polar Research Institute of China".
- China;s other icebreaker is named Xue Long.
About 1/4 of the world's oil and gas resources lie beneath the Arctic Ocean waters. The list of states that already laid claims to Arctic territories includes Russia, Norway, Denmark (because of Greenland), Canada and the USA. Note: Most of the technical information on this page is sourced from Wikipedia. To share our icebreakers ship tracking hub page, use the social media button links.
Itinerary of Icebreakers
Since the fall of the USSR, many icebreakers (including nuclear-powered) are also operated as cruise ships in the Arctic Ocean - to carry cruise passengers to the North Pole. The itinerary lasts about 20 days, with prices reaching up to USD 25000 per person. Most of the modern Russian icebreakers ("ledokol" / "ледокол" in Russian) have an separate cabin deck for tourists.
Follows the complete list of Russian icebreakers in active service. A small but most unusual cruise travel niche, the ice breaker ship travel's popularity prompts most of the Russian ice-breaking vessels to be also operated as cruise ships under charter by both domestic and foreign operators.
These unique ships operate on itineraries in the Russia’s Arctic Ocean waters, with departures mostly from Europe, but also from Far-East Russia (Asia) ports. Notes: In brackets are shown shipowners. All nuclear ships are state-owned and managed/operated by Rosatom (a state corporation) through Atomflot. Rosmorport is a state-owned company (a Federal State Unitary Enterprise).
On the map here you can see the routes of the two classic Arctic Ocean expedition cruise itineraries. These ice-breaker ship travel itineraries usually start in Europe. The Northeast Passage itinerary is along the Russia's coast, while the "Northwest Passage" itinerary includes Greenland, Canada and the USA (Alaska).
Most icebreaker ships are used to keep the ice-covered shipping trade routes open. The regions where icebreakers are most needed are Baltic Sea, Great Lakes, Saint Lawrence Seaway, the Arctic Sea Route. There, icebreakers escort cargo vessel convoys through the ice-packed waters.
On the next map you can see all major destination ports of call and the exact sailing route of a Russian Arctic icebreaker cruise ship itinerary. For foreign tourists, it usually starts with a flight from USA to Russia - Anchorage (Alaska) to the embarkation port Anadyr (Chukotka).
List of Russian icebreakers
Follows a list of all (including new) Russian icebreaking vessels (some currently under construction). In brackets is shown the scheduled year of launch.
- NS 50 Let Pobedy (cruise ship, nuclear-powered)
- Admiral Makarov (FESCO)
- Akademik Fyodorov (research vessel, AARI)
- Akademik Ioffe (cruise ship, polar research vessel, Academy of Sciences)
- Akademik Sergey Vavilov (cruise ship, research vessel, Academy of Sciences)
- Arktika (Rosmorport)
- Avraamiy Zavenyagin (river ship, Norilsk Nickel)
- Baltika (rescuer, Rosmorrechflot)
- Dikson (Rosmorport)
- Dudinka (Norilsk Nickel)
- Ivan Kruzenshtern (Krusenstern)
- Kapitan A Radzhabov (CBARS, Azerbaijan)
- Kapitan Babichev (river ship, LORP Yakutsk)
- Kapitan Borodkin (river ship, LORP Yakutsk)
- Kapitan Bukaev (river ship, Rosmorport)
- Kapitan Chadaev (river ship, Rosmorport)
- Kapitan Chechkin (river ship)
- Kapitan Chudinov (river ship, Rosmorport)
- Kapitan Demidov (river ship, Rosmorport)
- Kapitan Dranitsyn (cruise ship, polar research vessel, AARI)
- Kapitan Evdokimov (river ship, Rosmorport)
- Kapitan M Izmaylov (Rosmorport)
- Kapitan Khlebnikov (cruise ship, FESCO)
- Kapitan Kosolapov (Rosmorport)
- Kapitan Krutov (river ship, Rosmorport)
- Kapitan Metsayk (river ship, Rosmorport)
- Kapitan Moshkin (river ship, Rosmorport)
- Kapitan Nikolaev (Rosmorport)
- Kapitan Plakhin (river ship, Rosmorport)
- Kapitan Sorokin (Rosmorport)
- Kapitan Zarubin (river ship, Rosmorport)
- Krasin (FESCO)
- Magadan (FESCO)
- Moskva (Project 21900, Rosmorport) - built 2008
- Mudyug (Rosmorport)
- Murmansk (Project 21900, Rosmorport) - built 2015
- Novorossiysk (Project 21900, Rosmorport) - built 2016
- NS Rossiya (nuclear-powered)
- Sankt Peterburg (Project 21900, Rosmorport) - built 2009
- NS Sevmorput (icebreaking container ship, nuclear-powered)
- NS Sovetskiy Soyuz (nuclear-powered)
- NS Taymyr (nuclear-powered)
- NS Vaygach (nuclear-powered)
- Vladimir Ignatyuk (MSCO / Murmansk Shipping Company) - former name Arctic Kalvik
- Vladivostok (Project 21900, Rosmorport) - built 2015
- NS Yamal (cruise ship, nuclear-powered)
List of British, Australian, Canadian and USA icebreakers
In the following list, in brackets is shown the year of launch and the country that owns the vessel.
- Aurora Australis (1990, Australian cruise ship)
- Hudson (river icebreaker, Canada)
- Nathaniel B Palmer (1992, NSF)
- Laurence M Gould (1997, NSF)
- Sikuliaq (2014, NSF)
- Aiviq (2012, ECO - "Edison Chouest Offshore" - marine transportation companies, USA)
- RRS James Clark Ross (1991, BAS UK)
- RRS Ernest Shackleton (1995, BAS UK) - chartered
- RRS Sir David Attenborough (2019, BAS UK)
- HMS Protector (2001, UK Royal Navy patrol ship)
- CCGS Amundsen (1979)
- CCGS Des Groseilliers (1982)
- CCGS Terry Fox (1983, sister to Vladimir Ignatyuk / Arctic Kalvik)
- CCGS Henry Larsen (1987)
- CCGS Pierre Radisson (1987)
- CCGS Samuel Risley (1985)
- CCGS John G Diefenbaker (2021-2022)
- CCGS Louis S St Laurent (1969)
- USCGC Polar Sea (cutter, inactive)*
- USCGC Polar Star (1977, cutter)
- USCGC Healy (1999, cutter)
- USCGC Mackinaw (2006, cutter)
List of Icebreaking ships by other countries
In the following list, in brackets is shown the year of launch and the vessel's country.
- Aurora Borealis (European Union project)
- Araon (South Korea) 2009
- Ale (Sweden) 1973
- Elsava (river icebreaker, Germany)
- Frej (Sweden) 1975
- Kontio (Finland) 1987
- Kronprins Haakon (Norway) 2017
- MSV Botnica (Estonia) 1998
- MSV Fennica (Finland) 1993
- MSV Nordica (Finland) 1994
- L'Astrolabe (France) 2017
- Oden (Sweden) 1982
- Otso (Finland) 1985
- Polaris (Finland) 2016
- Polar Pevek (Norway) 2006
- Polarstern (Germany) 1982
- Rothelstein (river icebreaker, Austria) 1995
- Shirase (Japan) 1983
- Sisu (Finland) 1976
- Urho (Finland) 1975
- Xue Long (China; translated "Snow Dragon") 1993
- Ymer (Sweden) 1976
- (under construction, not named yet) project Arctech 510 (yard number NB 510, Finland)
- MT Mastera and MT Tempera (crude oil carriers - icebreaking tankers, Finland) - year-round crude oil shipping from Russia to Finland (Primorsk oil terminal to Porvoo and Naantali refineries of Neste Oil)*
In late November 2014, Finland’s “Cabinet Committee on Economic Policy” released an official statement regarding the country’s aging icebreaking fleet. According to the statement, the old fleet will be fully replaced with new icebreakers by the year 2029. The project’s overall cost is approx EURO 1 billion. The new vessels (like Polaris) must be multipurpose icebreakers (including for Arctic oil explorations).
Follows a list of ice-strengthened expedition and research vessels, which are often chartered for polar cruise itineraries to Arctic and Antarctic destinations.
- Akademik Golitsyn (1984, Russia)
- Akademik Shuleykin (1982, Russia)
- Akademik Shokalskiy (1982, Russia)
- Geolog Dmitriy Nalivkin (1983, Russia)
- MS Expedition (1972) owned by G-Adventures
- Professor Molchanov (1982, Russia)
- Professor Multanovskiy (1983, Russia)
- Polar Empress (2015, Norway, GC Rieber Shipping)
- Polar Duke (2010, Norway, GC Rieber Shipping)
- Polar Duchess (2011, Norway, GC Rieber Shipping)
- Polar Marquis (2000, Norway, GC Rieber Shipping) - formerly Geo Atlantic
- Polar Pioneer (1985) Aurora Expeditions cruise ship
- Polar Surveyor (1983) - formerly Akademik Gamburtsye
- HMS Trosso (1984) - formerly Arnold Veymer
- RRS Discovery (2013, NERC UK)
- RRS James Cook (2007, NERC UK)
- Spirit of Enderby (1983) - formerly Professor Khromov
- Stella Australis (2010) and Ventus Australis (2018) are owned by Australis Cruises Patagonia.
- Ushuaia (1970) is owned by Antarpply Expeditions.
- Oceanwide Expeditions own the ships Hondius (2019), Ortelius (1989), Plancius (1976), Noorderlicht (1991, 2-mast schooner), Rembrandt van Rijn (1994, 3-mast schooner).
- Quark Expeditions owns / charters the cruise vessels Island Sky (1992), Hans Hansson (1960), Sea Spirit (1991), Ocean Adventurer (1975 ), Ocean Atlantic (1986), Ocean Diamond (1974), Ocean Endeavour (1982), Ocean Nova (1992), World Explorer (2018).
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